Parliaments and Systems of Government
Austria in 1789 included the provinces of Bohemia, Moravia, Galicia, Slovakia, Transylvania, Bukovina, Croatia-Slavonia, Carniola, Gorizia, Istria, Dalmatia, Lombardy and Venetia, and the Kingdom of Hungary. The Sovereign of Austria ruled as King (or Queen) of Austria and Hungary until 1804, when the King of Austria, who was also Holy Roman Emperor, took the title of Emperor of Austria; he remained King of Hungary. In all his dominions his power was partly limited by the existence of representative bodies, or estates, which consisted of deputies chosen to represent social groups (nobility, clergy, burghers, knights and peasants) and communities. These had varying executive powers in the management of public works and the organization of levies and supplies, but their main function was to vote taxes and be responsible for their collection. They were therefore able to obstruct the implementation of royal policies of which they did not approve. Their own effectiveness was limited in its turn because deputies were sent to the estates with limited powers, and were obliged to refer back to those whom they represented.
KeywordsAdvisory Body Electoral College Lower House Executive Power Electoral District
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