Trade and Development of the Agrarian Economy

  • Rodney Wilson


The last 20 years have witnessed probably greater changes in the agricultural sector than any other single period in the history of the Middle East. Massive land reforms have been instigated in Egypt, Syria, Iraq and Iran, involving the breaking up of large estates and their redistribution to tenants, sharecroppers and farm labourers. Co-operative organisations have been set up to provide farmers with agricultural credit and farm inputs while; in addition, an increasing proportion of farm produce has been marketed through these organisations rather than the traditional merchants. New large-scale irrigation projects based, in most cases, on the experience of the Tennessee Valley Authority, have been undertaken, often with foreign assistance, to increase the land available for cultivation and to provide power.1


Foreign Exchange Middle East Middle Eastern Land Reform Middle Eastern Country 
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Chapter 2

  1. 1.
    For a summary of these developments see M. Clauson, H. Landsberg and L. Alexander, The Agricultural Potential of the Middle East ( Rand Corporation, New York, 1972 ).Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    G. Baer, A History of Landownership in Modern Egypt 1800–1950 (Oxford University Press, 1962 ).Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Doreen Warriner, Land Reform and Development in the Middle East, a Study of Egypt, Syria and Iraq (Oxford University Press, 1957).Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    See Gabriel Saab, The Egyptian Agrarian Reform 1952–1962 (Oxford University Press, 1967).Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    See Food and Agricultural Organisation of the United Nations, Country Reports of Iraq and Syria to World Land Reform Conference ( Rome, 1966 ), Mimeographed.Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    R. M. Ghonemy, ‘Economic and Institutional Organizations of Egyptian Agriculture since 1952’, in P. J. Vatikiotis (ed.) Egypt Since the Revolution, ( Allen and Unwin, London, 1968 ).Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Ann Lambton, The Persian Land Reform 1962–66 (Oxford University Press, 1969).Google Scholar
  8. 9.
    E. Eshag and A. M. Kamal, ‘Agrarian Reform in the United Arab Republic (Egypt)’, Bulletin of the Oxford Institute of Economics and Statistics, Vol. 30 (May 1968), pp. 96–8.Google Scholar
  9. 10.
    Doreen Warriner, Land Reform in Principle and Practice (Oxford University Press, 1969), Chapters 1 and 4.Google Scholar
  10. 11.
    K. S. McLachlan, ‘Land Reform in Iran’, in W. B. Fisher (ed.), The Cambridge History of Iran (Cambridge University Press, 1968), Vol. 1, p. 684ff.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 13.
    Doreen Warriner ‘Employment and Income Aspects of Recent Agrarian Reforms in the Middle East’, International Labour Review Vol. 101, (1970).Google Scholar
  12. 14.
    See also R. M. Ghonemy ‘Land Reform and Economic Development in the Middle East’, Land Economics, Vol. 44, (1968).Google Scholar
  13. 16.
    Ann Lambton, ‘Land Reform and the Rural Cooperative Societies’, in Ehsan Yar Shaler (ed.), Iran Faces the Seventies ( Praeger, New York, 1971 ), Chapter 1.Google Scholar
  14. 18.
    J. D. Atkinson, Handbook of Egyptian Irrigation (Cairo, 1934 ).Google Scholar
  15. 20.
    C. Warren ‘The High Aswan Dam and New Trends in Egyptian Agriculture’, Foreign Agriculture, Vol. 7, (1969).Google Scholar
  16. 21.
    Rodney Wilson, ‘Egypt’, The Times Supplement on the Arab Renaissance, 20 March 1975, p. 6.Google Scholar
  17. 22.
    Egypt historically tended to opt for the former. See Galal A. Amin, Food Supply and Economic Development with Special Reference to Egypt (Cass, London, 1966 ).Google Scholar
  18. 27.
    Harry Myint, South East Asia’s Economy (Penguin, London, 1971). Chapter 2 discusses the Green Revolution.Google Scholar
  19. 28.
    One useful study was conducted by R. M. Stern, ‘The Price-Responsiveness of Egyptian Cotton Producers’, Kyklos, Vol. 12, (1959).Google Scholar
  20. 31.
    B. Hansen and M. El Tomy, ‘The Seasonal Employment Profile on Egyptian Agriculture’, Journal of Development Studies (1965), No. 1.Google Scholar
  21. 34.
    Rodney Wilson, ‘Fruiterer to the Arab World’, The Times Supplement on Beirut, 27 June 1975, p. 3.Google Scholar
  22. 36.
    The Arab World: Key Indicators The Kuwait Fund for Arab Economic Development (Kuwait, April 1975), Table 6.4, p. 40.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Rodney Wilson 1977

Authors and Affiliations

  • Rodney Wilson

There are no affiliations available

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