Pakistan and the Socialist Countries: Politics, Trade and Aid

  • Akbar Noman


Economic relations are frequently also political relations, especially between countries. Trade and flag are not entirely unlike chicken and egg in that their mutual causality is often inextricable. Hence, in examining the economic relations between Pakistan1 and the socialist countries,2 this paper begins by outlining the political relations which constituted the framework for the former. Section II examines the development and nature of trade between Pakistan and the socialist countries. Section III focuses on aid.


Trade Agreement Eastern European Country Socialist Country Trade Surplus Debt Relief 
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  1. 4.
    Cf. S. M. Burke, Pakistan’s Foreign Policy: An Historical Analysis ( London: Oxford University Press, 1973 ) pp. 100–1.Google Scholar
  2. 14.
    Quoted in R. A. Yellon, ‘Shifts in Soviet policy towards developing areas 1964–1968’, in W. R. Duncan (ed.), Soviet Policy in Developing Countries (Waltham, Mass., 1970) p. 266.Google Scholar
  3. 32.
    Cf. I. Brecher and S. A. Abbas, Foreign Aid and Industrial Development in Pakistan (Cambridge University Press: 1972) pp. 80–1.Google Scholar

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© Deepak Nayyar 1977

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  • Akbar Noman

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