The Future of Experiential Learning in Organizational Development: A Prophecy

  • Ned Levine
  • Cary L. Cooper


Thirty years ago the first experiential learning groups (T-groups) were developed in the United States and Britain as a major educational innovation. The purpose was an attempt to utilise group process as a form of education, allowing business and community leaders, professionals, social service personnel and a host of others a chance to improve their leadership skills under an experimental atmosphere. Since that time, the use of experiential learning groups has expanded enormously and has spread into a whole host of educational and service occupations, changing in form and in style over the years. There are virtually dozens of different types of groups run today, with very little overlap in purpose and assumptions (Siroka, Siroka, and Schloss, 1971). Nonetheless, one of the major uses of experiential learning groups has been, and still is, their adaptation to organizational settings. From the very inception of the movement, they have been used as a means of teaching organizational personnel about leadership skills, communication patterns, group morale and other dimensions of organizational life in the hope that they will improve the ‘effectiveness in working within organizations’ (Bradford, Gibb and Benne, 1964; Cooper, 1972).


Experiential Learn Organizational Development Large Organisation Organisational Setting Group Trainer 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. Alavi, H., ‘The state in post-colonial societies: Pakistan and Bangladesh,’ New Left Review (1972) no. 74 (July—Aug), 59–81.Google Scholar
  2. Amin, S., Accumulation on a world scale (2 vols.) ( New York: Monthly Review Press, 1974 ).Google Scholar
  3. Argyris, C., ‘Explorations in interpersonal competence — I’, Journal of Applied Behavioral Science (1965) 1, 58–84.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Bairoch, P., Urban unemployment in developing countries ( Geneva: International Labor Office, 1973 ).Google Scholar
  5. Baran, P.A., The Political Economy of Growth ( New York: Monthly Review Press, 1957 ).Google Scholar
  6. Baran, P.A. and Sweezy, P.M., Monopoly Capital ( New York: Monthly Review Press, 1966 ).Google Scholar
  7. Bass, B., ‘Reactions to Twelve Angry Men as a measure of sensitivity training’, Journal of Applied Psychology (1962) 46, 120–4.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Benne, K.D., ‘History of the T-group in the laboratory setting’ in L.P. Bradford, J.R. Gibb, and K.D. Benne (eds.), T-group theory and laboratory method ( New York: Wiley, 1964 ).Google Scholar
  9. Berelson, B., ‘World population: Status report, 1974’, Report on Population and Family Planning (1974) no. 15 (Jan).Google Scholar
  10. Bhalla, A.S., ‘The role of services in employment expansion’ in R. Jolly, E. DeKadt, H.Singer, and F. Wilson (eds.), Third world employment ( London: Penguin, 1973 ).Google Scholar
  11. Blaug, M., Education and the employment problem in developing countries ( Geneva: International Labor Office, 1973 ).Google Scholar
  12. Boerma, A.H., ‘A world agricultural plan’, Scientific American (1970) 223, no. 2 (Aug) 54–69.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Bogue, D.J., Principles of demography ( New York: Wiley, 1969 ).Google Scholar
  14. Boulding, K.E., ‘The economics of the coming spaceship Earth’ in H. Jarrett (ed.), Environmental quality in a growing economy ( Baltimore: Johns Hopkins Press, 1966 ).Google Scholar
  15. Boulding, K.E., ‘The shadow of the stationary state’, Daedalus (1973) 102, no. 4 (Fall).Google Scholar
  16. Bradford, L.P., Gibb, J.R., and Benne, K.D., ‘Two educational innovations’ in LP. Bradford, J.R. Gibb, and K.D. Benne (eds.) T-group theory and laboratory method ( New York: Wiley, 1964 ).Google Scholar
  17. Bruner, E.M., ‘Medan: The role of kinship in an Indonesian city’ in W. Mangin (ed.), Peasants in cities ( Boston: Houghton-Mifflin, 1970 ).Google Scholar
  18. Bryce Laporte, R.S., ‘Urban relocation and family adaptation in Puerto Rico: A case study in urban ethnography’ in W. Mangin (ed.), Peasants in cities ( Boston: Houghton-Mifflin, 1970 ).Google Scholar
  19. Burke, R.L. and Bennis, W.B., ‘Changes in perception of self and others during human relations training’, Human Relations (1961) 14, 165–82.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Clark, C., The conditions of economic progress ( London: Macmillan, 1940 ).Google Scholar
  21. Coale, A.J., ‘Population and economic development’ in P.M. Hauser (ed.), The population dilemma ( Englewood Cliffs, N.J.: Prentice-Hall, 1963 ).Google Scholar
  22. Coale, A.J., Regional model life tables and stable populations ( Princeton, N.J.: Princeton University Press, 1966 ).Google Scholar
  23. Coombs, P.H., The world educational crisis : A systems analysis( London: Oxford University Press, 1968 ).Google Scholar
  24. Cooper, C.L., ‘T-group training and self-actualization’ Psychological Reports (1971) 28, 391–4.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Cooper, C.L, Group training for individual and organizational development ( Basel: S. Karger, 1972 ).Google Scholar
  26. Cooper, C.L., Levine, N. and Kobayashi, K., ‘Developing one’s potential: from West to East’, Group and Organizational Studies (1976) 1, 43–55.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Cooper, C.L., and Mangham, I.L., T-groups: A survey.of research ( London: Wiley, 1971 ).Google Scholar
  28. Dahrendorf, R., Class and class conflict in an industrial society (English ed., 1959) ( London: Routledge and Kegan Paul, 1957 ).Google Scholar
  29. Davis, K., ‘Zero population growth: The goal and the means’, Daedalus (1973) 102, no. 4 (Fall) 15–30.Google Scholar
  30. De Sofia Price, D.J., Little science big science (New York: Columbia University Press, 1963 ).Google Scholar
  31. Fishlow, A., ‘Brazilian size distribution of income’, American Economic Review (1972) 62, 391–403.Google Scholar
  32. Frejka, T., The Future of Population Growth ( New York: Wiley, 1973 ).Google Scholar
  33. French, J.R.P., Sherwood, J.L., and Bradford, D., ‘Changes in self-identity in a management training conference’, Journal of Applied Behavioral Science (1966) 2, 210–18.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Friedlander, S., and Silver, M.A., ‘A quantitative study of the determinants of fertility behavior’, Demography (1967) 4, 30–70.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Galbraith, J.K., American capitalism (Boston: Houghton-Mifflin, 1952 ). Galbraith, J.K., The new industrial state ( Boston: Houghton-Mifflin, 1967 ).Google Scholar
  36. Glyn, A., and Sutcliffe, B., British capitalism, workers and the profits squeeze (Harmondsworth, Middlesex: Penguin, 1972 ).Google Scholar
  37. Goldthorpe, J.H., and Lockwood, D., ‘Affluence and the British class structure’, Sociological Review (1963) 11, 133–63.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Gutkind, P.C.W., ‘The unemployed and poor in urban Africa’ in R. Jolly, E. De Kadt, H. Singer, and F. Wilson (eds.), Third world employment (London: Penguin, 1973 ).Google Scholar
  39. Harrison, K., ‘Group training within an organization development project in an industrial company’ in C.L. Cooper (ed), Group Training for Individual and Organizational Development ( Basel: S. Karger, 1972 ) pp. 80–99.Google Scholar
  40. Hauser, P.M., ‘The census of 1970’, Scientific American (1971) 225, 17–25.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Herrara, A.O., et. al., Catastrophe or New Society? A Latin American World Model ( Ottawa: International Development Research Centre, 1976 ).Google Scholar
  42. Hobsbawn, E.J., Industry and empire ( London: Penguin, 1968 ).Google Scholar
  43. Hudson, H.V., The diseconomics of growth (London: Pan/Ballantine, 1972 ). International Labour Office, Towards full employment: A Programme for Columbia ( Geneva: International Labour Office, 1970 ).Google Scholar
  44. Jalee, P., The pillage of the Third World (English ed., 1968) ( New York: Monthly Review Press, 1965 ).Google Scholar
  45. Jolly, R., DeKadt, E., Singer, H., and Wilson, F., Third World employment ( London: Penguin, 1973 ).Google Scholar
  46. Kiray, M.B., ‘Squatter housing: Fast depeasantisation and slow workerisation in underdeveloped countries ’(paper presented at the 7th World Congress of Sociology, Varne, Bulgaria, 1970 ).Google Scholar
  47. Kuznets, S., Economic growth of nations ( Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press; 1971 ).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Levine, N., ‘Emotional factors in group development’, Human Relations (1971) 24, 65–89.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Levine, N., ‘Group training with students in higher education’ in C.L. Cooper (ed.), Group training for individual and organizational development.Google Scholar
  50. Levine, N., ‘Value orientation among migrants in Ankara, Turkey: A case study’, Journal of Asian and African Studies (1973) 8, 50–68.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Levine, N., ‘On the metaphysics of social psychology’, Human Relations (1976) 29, 385–400.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Levine, N. and Cooper, C.L., ‘T-groups — twenty years on’, Human Relations (1976) 29, 1–23.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Lotka, A.J., Theorie analytique des associations bilogiques ( Paris: Hermann, 1939 ).Google Scholar
  54. Marris, R.A., ‘A model of the “managerial enterprise” ’, Quarterly Journal of Economics (1963) 77, 185–209.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Meadows, D.H., Meadows, D.L., Randers, J., and Behrens, W.W., The limits of growth ( New York: Potomac Assocs., 1972 ).Google Scholar
  56. Mills, C.W., White collar: The American middle classes ( New York: Oxford University Press, 1951 ).Google Scholar
  57. Mishan, E.J., The costs of economic growth ( New York: F.A. Praeger, 1967 ).Google Scholar
  58. Myint, H., The economics of developing countries ( London: Hutchinson, 1964 ).Google Scholar
  59. Myrdal, G., ‘Labour utilisation outside traditional agriculture’ in G. Myrdal, Asiandrama, vol.11 (1968).Google Scholar
  60. Nortman, D., ‘Population and family planning programmes: A factbook’ (6th ed.) Report on Population and Family Planning, no. 2 (1975).Google Scholar
  61. Notestein, F.W., ‘Population — The long view’ in T.W. Shultz (ed.), Food for the world ( Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1945 ).Google Scholar
  62. Paukert, F., ‘Income distribution at different levels of development: A survey of evidence’, International Labour Review (1973) 108, 47–125.Google Scholar
  63. Rainwater, L, Coleman, P., and Handel, G., Workingman’s wife ( New York: Oceana Publics, 1959 ).Google Scholar
  64. Rubin, I., ‘The reduction of prejudice through laboratory training’, Journal of Applied Behavioual Science (1967) 3, 29–50.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. Seers, D., ‘Rich countries and poor’ in D. Seers and L. Joy (eds.), Development in a divided world ( London: Penguin, 171 ).Google Scholar
  66. Siroka, R.W., Siroka, E.K., and Schloss, G.A., Sensitivity training and group encounter: An introduction ( New York: Grosset and Dunlap, 1971 ).Google Scholar
  67. Smith, P.B., ‘The varieties of group experience’, New Society (Mar 25, 1971 ) 483–5.Google Scholar
  68. Smith, P.B., ‘Controlled studies of the outcome of sensitivity training’, Psychological Bulletin (1975) 82, 598–622.Google Scholar
  69. Streeten, P., ‘How poor are the poor countries?’ in D. Seers and L. Joy (eds.), Development in a divided world ( London: Penguin, 1971 ).Google Scholar
  70. Sutcliffe, R.B., Industry and underdevelopment ( London-Reading: Addison-Wesley, 1971 ).Google Scholar
  71. Thompson, W.S., Plenty of people (Penn: Jacques Cattell Press, 1944 ).Google Scholar
  72. United Nations, World Economic Survey ( New York: UN, 1969–70 ).Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Ned Levine and Cary L. Cooper 1977

Authors and Affiliations

  • Ned Levine
  • Cary L. Cooper

There are no affiliations available

Personalised recommendations