Social Conditions and Government Policies

  • Alison Wright


It is indisputable that increases in per capita income have been considerable since the mid-1960s, although figures for individual years vary according to source.1 Until 1963 Spain could be described as a developing country in terms of the United Nations’ classification of per capita income levels. In 1963 per capita income at market prices crossed the $500 line,2 and by 1971 had doubled to over $1000. In 1975 income per head at market prices was $2574. In order to see this rapid rise in relation to the expansion of other countries, Table 5.1 gives some comparisons of GDP per capita in various countries in 1961, 1970 and 1973.


Capita Income Secondary Education Housing Policy Spanish Economy Sickness Insurance 
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  1. 4.
    In 1971, there were 132 television sets per 1000 inhabitants and in 1970, 151 telephones and 71 passenger cars per 1000 inhabitants. Comparable figures for France were 227, 185 and 245; Britain, 298, 289 and 213, and Italy, 191, 188 and 187. OECD, Economic Survey: Basic Statistics: International Comparisons (1974).Google Scholar
  2. 8.
    INE, Encuesta de Presupuestos Familiares (May 1975).Google Scholar
  3. 9.
    Bank of Bilbao, Renta nacional de España y su distribución provincial (Bilbao, 1973).Google Scholar
  4. 10.
    E.g. Alfonso Ferres and Armando López Salinas, Caminando por Las Hurdes (Barcelona, 1960 and 1974);Google Scholar
  5. Ramón Carnicer, Donde Las Hurdes se llaman cabrera (Barcelona, 1963);Google Scholar
  6. Antonio Pintado and Eduardo Berrenchea, La Raya de Portugal (Madrid, 1972);Google Scholar
  7. Juan Goytisolo, Campos de Míjar (Barcelona, 1960);Google Scholar
  8. Jesús Torbado, Tierra mal bautizada (Barcelona, 1968);Google Scholar
  9. Alfonso Comin, España del Sur: Aspectos económicosy sociales de desarrollo de Andalucía (Madrid, 1965);Google Scholar
  10. Juan Martinez Alier, La estabilidad del latifundismo (Paris, 1968).Google Scholar
  11. 13.
    INE, La renta nacional en 1973 y su distribución (Madrid, 1974). For 1973 and 1974 actual figures are not given, only percentage increases. These show, however, that the trend continues.Google Scholar
  12. 17.
    OECD, Development Study on Andalusia (Darmstadt, 1964).Google Scholar
  13. 20.
    INE, Encuesta de Presupuestos Familiares (Madrid, 1964 and 1965).Google Scholar
  14. 21.
    See J. Estivill and J. Pons, Apuntes sobre el trabajo en España (Barcelona, 1973) p. 102.Google Scholar
  15. 22.
    For greater detail, see Julio Alcaide Inchausti’s article ‘La distribución de la renta: ¿Cómo se reparte el dinero de los espñnoles?’, in Los domingos de ABC (23 November 1975).Google Scholar
  16. 24.
    INE, Estadística de establecimientos sanitarios con régimen de internado (Madrid, 1972).Google Scholar
  17. 28.
    See the statement of the Minister of Labour in 1970 on this point in F. Soler Sabaris, Problemas de la seguridad social española (Barcelona, 1971) p. 126.Google Scholar
  18. 35.
    See Luis Garnir, ed., Política económica de España (Madrid, 1972) p. 326.Google Scholar
  19. 37.
    Gonfederación Española de Cajas de Ahorros, Demanda y acceso a la propiedad de viviendas (Madrid, 1969).Google Scholar
  20. 42.
    See A. Santillana, Analisis económico del problema de la vivienda (Barcelona, 1972).Google Scholar
  21. 43.
    See Ramón Tamames, Estructura económica de España (Madrid, 1970) p. 387.Google Scholar
  22. 46.
    See IBRD Report, The Economic Development of Spain (Baltimore, 1963) Chapter 18.Google Scholar
  23. 48.
    Max Gallo, Spain Under Franco (London, 1973) p. 91.Google Scholar
  24. 53.
    Fundación Foessa, Informe sociológico sobre la situación social de España 1970 (Madrid, 1970) p. 862.Google Scholar
  25. 55.
    In 1967–8 there were 326 centres available for bachillerato laboral and 471 for industrial training, compared with 2599 centres for the bachillerato general (Ministerio de Educación y Ciencia, Datosy cifras de la enseñanza en España, 1969).Google Scholar
  26. 57.
    See Amando de Miguel, Manual de Estructura Social de España (Madrid, 1974) p. 476.Google Scholar
  27. 58.
    IBRD Report, cited in note 46, p. 395. In the periods 1952–3, 1954–5 the average number of students registered in science faculties was 12,600, but numbers graduating in 1957–8 and 1958–9 were only 475 and 565 respectively. In 1972, out of a total of 56,038 registered pupils in the Escuelas Universitarias de Ingeniera Técnica, only 6067 finished the course. See INE, España Anuario Estadístico 1974 (Madrid, 1974) p. 347.Google Scholar
  28. 59.
    Ministerio de Educación y Ciencia, also INE, Datosy cifras …, 1969; Anuario Estadístico (1971).Google Scholar
  29. 63.
    See J. Jané Solá, El problema de los salarios en España (Barcelona, 1969) p. 257. The same problem also affects the labour institutes.Google Scholar

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© Alison Wright 1977

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  • Alison Wright

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