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Industry: Planning, Regional Policy, Wages, Unions

  • Alison Wright

Abstract

After the Civil War the Spanish economy was subject to an extensive network of government controls which were not, however, subject to any overriding economic plan.1 Following the Stabilisation Plan and subsequent related measures greater reliance was to be placed on market forces. It was moreover decided that economic growth should be stimulated and guided by the publication of a government plan on economic development. The development plans, of which there have so far been three (1964–7, 1968–71,2 1972–5), have been the subject of intense debate within Spain throughout the decade, partly perhaps because economics was a field in which comparative freedom of debate was possible and political views and criticisms of the status quo were voiced in relation to planning in a way which would not have been possible in a more overtly political context.

Keywords

Minimum Wage Regional Policy Collective Bargaining Labour Relation Development Pole 
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Notes

  1. 4.
    Kenneth Medhurst, Government in Spain (Oxford, 1973) p. 99.Google Scholar
  2. 6.
    See K. Medhurst, Government in Spain; also Salustiano del Campo and Manuel Navarro, Crítica de la planificación social española 1964–75 (Madrid, 1976).Google Scholar
  3. 8.
    ‘1968, el año de la austeridad’, Gaceta Ilustrada, 10 December 1967, quoted in Luis Garnir (ed.), Política económica de España (Madrid, 1972) Chapter 11.Google Scholar
  4. 9.
    See Charles W. Anderson, The Political Economy of Modern Spain (Wisconsin, 1970) p. 231: ‘In Plan II there is a certain symbolic quality to the emphasis on the social factors in developments.’Google Scholar
  5. 11.
    See III Plan de Desarrollo Económico y Social 1972–1975 and Ramón Tamames, Introducción a la economía española (Madrid, 1972) p. 520 et seq. for a summary.Google Scholar
  6. 13.
    See Luis Garnir, ed., Política económica de España (Madrid, 1972) p. 252.Google Scholar
  7. 21.
    IBRD, The Economic Development of Spain (Baltimore, 1963).Google Scholar
  8. 34.
    OECD, Economic Surveys: Spain (Paris, 1975) p. 10.Google Scholar
  9. 35.
    OECD, Development Study — Andalusia (Paris, 1967).Google Scholar
  10. 37.
    OECD, Economic Survey: Spain (Paris, 1976) p. 12.Google Scholar
  11. 38.
    Fundación Foessa, Informe sociológico sobre la situación social de España 1970 (Madrid, 1970) p. 1056.Google Scholar
  12. 43.
    Instituto de Estudios Sindicales, Sociales y Co-operativos, Estudio sociológico sobre el trabajador y su medio en la ciudad de Barcelona (1969).Google Scholar
  13. 45.
    For greater detail on the beginnings of the INP and social insurance schemes, see Felipe Soler Sabaris, Problemas de la seguridad social española (Barcelona, 1971).Google Scholar
  14. 48.
    See OECD, Economic Surveys: Spain (Paris, 1975).Google Scholar
  15. 49.
    See J. Jané Solá, El problema de los salarios en España (Barcelona, 1969) p. 136. The sectors affected included public utilities, banks, mining, wool, leather, textiles and others.Google Scholar
  16. 52.
    See Ronald Fraser, The Pueblo (London, 1973) p. 72. The author argues that this was a deliberate policy pursued by the government to subdue the working class.Google Scholar
  17. 53.
    See J. Jané Solá, Los condicionamientos del mercado de trabajo y el crecimiento económico espanol de los años sesenta (Madrid, 1975).Google Scholar
  18. 54.
    For various aspects of salaries in Spain, see J. Jané Solá, El problema de los salarios en España; J. C. Linz and A. de Miguel, ‘Los problemas de la retribución y el rendimiento vistos por los empresarios españoles’, Revista de trabajo, No 1 (1963); A. Nieto, La retribución de los funcionarios en España (Madrid, 1967).Google Scholar
  19. 55.
    Bank of Bilbao, Renta nacional de España y su distribución provincial (Bilbao, 1964 and 1973).Google Scholar
  20. 58.
    INE, La renia nacional en 1974 y su distribución (Madrid, 1975).Google Scholar
  21. 63.
    The nuances of correlation between the original Falange conception and the actual evolution of the sindicatos are not discussed here. An excellent account of this is to be found in J. Amsden, Collective Bargaining and Class Conflict in Spain (London, 1972), who gives a clear and full description of labour relations in Spain, to which I am much indebted.Google Scholar
  22. 65.
    Quoted from Pueblo, 13 December 1969, by Jordi Estivill and Ignasti Pons in Apuntes sobre el trabajo en España (Barcelona, 1971) p. 150.Google Scholar
  23. 69.
    A. de Miguel and J. Linz, Los empresarios ante elpoder público (Madrid, 1966).Google Scholar
  24. 70.
    José Maria Maravall, El desarrollo económico y la clase obrera en España (Barcelona, 1970) p. 96.Google Scholar

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© Alison Wright 1977

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  • Alison Wright

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