Industry: Structure and Growth

  • Alison Wright


The years following the stabilisation measures of 1959, or more precisely 1962, by which time the harsher effects of the Stabilisation Plan had been largely relieved, were those of ‘take off’ for the industrial sector. Before, however, examining the changes which have taken place since the early 1960s, a brief survey of earlier industrial developments in Spain follows, in order that the events of the 1960s and early 1970s should not be wholly divorced from their historical context.


Gross Domestic Product Foreign Investment Industrial Sector Capital Good Foreign Capital 
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  1. 1.
    See Raymond Carr, Spain 1808–1939 (Oxford, 1966) Chapter VII.Google Scholar
  2. 4.
    Ramón Tamames, Estructura económica de España (Madrid, 1970 and other editions) comments on the specialisation of industry which took place between 1881 and 1914; for example, Vizcaya became primarily a producer of iron, Asturias of coal (though expensive), the cotton industry was concentrated in Barcelona and the wool industry in Sabadell, Tarassa and Bejar, the paper industry in Guipuzcoa.Google Scholar
  3. 8.
    For a full description and discussion of these laws and the extent of control exercised, see Tamames, Estructura económica de España, Chapter 12, and IBRD, The Economic Development of Spain (Baltimore, 1963) Chapter 15.Google Scholar
  4. 10.
    For a description of this, see Arthur P. Whitaker, Spain and the Defense of the West (New York, 1961);Google Scholar
  5. Benjamin Welles, Spain: The Gentle Anarchy (London and New York, 1965).Google Scholar
  6. 14.
    In addition to the disquieting economic facts, the government was no doubt influenced by the wave of unrest and strikes in 1958 which led to the temporary suspension of the Fuero de los Españoles; see Max Gallo, Spain Under Franco (London, 1973) Chapter 4.Google Scholar
  7. 20.
    George Hills, Spain (London, 1970) p. 315.Google Scholar
  8. 23.
    For figures in late 1960s, see OECD, L’Industrie sidérugique en 1967 et tendence en 1968 (Paris, 1968).Google Scholar
  9. 24.
    For a detailed analysis of intersectoral changes, see O. Fanful, F. Maravall, J. M. Pérez Prim and J. Segura, Cambios en la estructura interindustrial de la economía española 1962–1970: Una primera aproximación (Madrid, 1974).Google Scholar
  10. 25.
    Based on Bank of Bilbao, Renta nacional de España y su distribución provincial (1964 and 1973).Google Scholar
  11. 42.
    ‘Industries of national interest’ were primarily INI firms. Up to 1959 only thirty industries had been allowed these privileges, of which twenty were owned wholly or in part by the INI. See Charles W. Anderson, The Political Economy of Modern Spain (Wisconsin, 1970) p. 42.Google Scholar
  12. 47.
    See Amando de Miguel and Juan Salcedo, Dinámica del desarrollo industrial de las regiones españolas (Madrid, 1972) Table 34, p. 282.Google Scholar
  13. 49.
    OECD, Políticas Nacionales de la Ciencia: España (Madrid, 1971).Google Scholar
  14. 51.
    Kenneth Medhurst, Government in Spain (Oxford, 1973).Google Scholar

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© Alison Wright 1977

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  • Alison Wright

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