Conceptual and Causal Relationships in the Theory of Economic Integration in the Twentieth Century

  • Fritz Machlup


My first proposition is that the theory of interregional and international trade and the theory of interregional and international economic integration are co-extensive or, to state it more boldly, are concerned with the same conceptual and causal relationships, though perhaps with some minor shifts in emphasis. I shall begin with a few comments on the term ‘economic integration’.


Foreign Trade Economic Integration Custom Union Internal Integration Political Integration 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. Alexander, S. S., ‘Effects of a Devaluation on a Trade Balance’, International Monetary Fund Staff Papers, Vol. 2 (Apr., 1952), pp. 263–278.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Balassa, B., ‘Towards a Theory of Economic Integration’, Kyklos, Vol. 14 (1961), pp. 1–17.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Balassa, B., The Theory of Economic Integration (Homewood, Ill.: Irwin, 1961), pp. 1–3.Google Scholar
  4. Boulding, K. E., Economic Analysis (New York: Harper, 1941).Google Scholar
  5. Cooper, C. A. and Massell, B. F., ‘Towards a General Theory of Customs Unions for Developing Countries’, Journal of Political Economy, Vol. 73 (1965), pp. 461–476.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Cooper, R. N., ‘Worldwide versus Regional Integration: Is There an Optimum Size of the Integrated Area?’ in Fritz Machlup, (ed.), Economic Integration: Worldwide, Regional, Sectoral, Proceedings of the Fourth World Congress of the International Economic Association (London: Macmillan, 1976, pp. 41–53.Google Scholar
  7. Heckscher, E. F., Merkantilismen (Stockholm: Norstedt and Söners, 1931). English edition, Mercantilism, authorised translation by Mendel Shapiro (London: Allen and Unwin, 1935).Google Scholar
  8. Hilgerdt, F., The Network of World Trade (Geneva: Economic Intelligence Service, League of Nations, 1942).Google Scholar
  9. Johnson, H. G., ‘An Economic Theory of Protectionism, Tariff Bargaining, and the Formation of Customs Unions’, Journal of Political Economy, Vol. 73 (1965), pp. 256–283.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Kemp, M. C. and Wan, H. Y., ‘An Elementary Proposition Concerning the Formation of Customs Unions’, Journal of International Economics, Vol. 6 (Feb., 1976), pp. 95–97.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Machlup, F., ‘The Terms-of-Trade Effects of Devaluation upon Real Income and the Balance of Trade’, Kyklos, Vol. 9 (1956), pp. 417–452.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Meade, J. E., Problems of Economic Union (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1953).Google Scholar
  13. Meade, J. E., The Theory of Customs Unions (Amsterdam: North Holland Publishing Co., 1955).Google Scholar
  14. Ohlin, B., Interregional and International Trade (Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 1933).Google Scholar
  15. Röpke, W., ‘Världshushallningens förfall och därmed sammanhängande grundfrågor’, Ekonomisk Tidskrift, Vol. 41 (Jan., 1939), pp. 11–29.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Schneider, E., ‘Lineamenti di una teoria econo mica del mercato commune’, Rivista Internazionale di Scienze Economiche e Commerciali, Vol. 2 (Feb., 1957), pp. 107–118.Google Scholar
  17. Truman, E. M., ‘The Effects of European Economic Integration on the Production and Trade of Manufactured Products’, in Bela Balassa, (ed.) European Economic Integration (Amsterdam: North Holland Publishing Company, 1975), pp. 3–40.Google Scholar
  18. Weiller, J., ‘Les degrés de l’intégration et les chances d’une ‘zone de co- opération’ internationale’, Revue Economique, Vol. 9 (Mar., 1958), pp. 233–254.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© The Nobel Foundation 1977

Authors and Affiliations

  • Fritz Machlup

There are no affiliations available

Personalised recommendations