In 1824 Prout934 demonstrated hydrochloric acid in human gastric juice and measured the concentration of acid by ‘exact neutralisation’ with strong alkali (indicator not stated: ? litmus). He also established the equation which we would write now as

[Total chloride] = [Neutral chloride] + [Titratable acid]

Prout expressed his concentrations as ‘grains in one pint’. In 1886 Jaworski and Gluzinski611 used 0.1 M NaOH and litmus and expressed concentrations as cc N/10 NaOH per 100 cc gastric juice or degrees of acidity, afterwards termed clinical units (numerically identical with mEq/l, mN and the SI unit mmol/l).


Gastric Juice Parietal Cell Titratable Acidity Gastric Secretion Gastric Analysis 
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Copyright information

© J. H. Baron 1978

Authors and Affiliations

  • J. H. Baron
    • 1
    • 2
  1. 1.Departments of Surgery and MedicineRoyal Postgraduate Medical School and Hammersmith HospitalUK
  2. 2.St Charles’ HospitalSt Mary’s Hospital Medical SchoolLondonUK

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