Impact of the Cultivation of High-Yielding Varieties of Paddy on Income and Employment
Many studies have observed that the cultivation of HYVs has led to an increase in the income and employment of both cultivators and agricultural labourers — although the major benefits have gone to the former because of relatively large increases in their yields and net incomes compared with small increases in labour demand and wages to labourers — and hence to a greater disparity in incomes in rural areas (see, for example, Parthasarathy, 1971; UNRISD, 1971; Lele and Mellor, 1972; Mellor and Lele, 1973; Griffin, 1974). Wherever adoption of HYVs has led to increased mechanisation of operations and increased demand for family rather than hired labour, the benefits to the cultivators have been further enhanced to the disadvantage of labourers. Researchers have also observed an increasing tendency, especially after the advent of the HYVs, for wages to be paid in cash rather than kind, with an adverse effect on the incomes of labourers in times of inflation.
KeywordsGreen Revolution Agricultural Labourer Family Labour Land Preparation Paddy Cultivation
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