An American View of Defence Management

  • John E. Dawson


Two incidents which occurred in the early years of this century will serve to introduce this subject and suggest the character of the themes to be pursued.


Political Resource Pearl Harbor Defence Management Defence Budget Inaugural Address 
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  1. 1.
    Theodore Roosevelt, An Autobiography (New York, 1913) pp. 552–3.Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Quoted in Stephan Lorant, The Glorious Burden: The American Presidency (New York, 1968) p. 545.Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Harold J. Leavitt, Managerial Psychology: An Introduction to Individuals, Pairs, and Groups in Organizations, 2nd ed. (Chicago, 1964).Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    As, for example, in Stephen Enke (ed.), Defence Management (Engle-wood Cliffs, N.J., 1967). This book restricts ‘defence management’ to systems analysis and PPB as methods of resource allocation and specifically excludes even the resource utilisation process.Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Daniel Bell, The Coming of Post-Industrial Society: A Venture in Social Forecasting (New York, 1973) pp. 346–7.Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Stephen Vincent Benét, John Brown’s Body (New York, 1954) p. 92.Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Henry Brandon, The Retreat of American Power (New York, 1973).Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    Robert J. Donovan, Eisenhower: The Inside Story (New York, 1956) ch. 4.Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    Quoted in Aaron Wildavsky, The Politics of the Budgetary Process (Boston, 1964) p. 11.Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    Albert A. Nofi, ‘The Fall of France’, in Strategy and Tactics, no. 27 (New York, 1971).Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    Charles J. Hitch and Roland N. McKean, The Economics of Defense in the Nuclear Age (New York, 1965) p. 107.Google Scholar
  12. 16.
    See, for example, Robert Haveman, ‘The Analysis and Evaluation of Public Expenditures: An Overview’, in The Analysis and Evaluation of Public Expenditures: The PPB System, 1, US Congress, Joint Economic Committee, Subcommittee on Economy in Government, 91st Congress, 1st Session (Washington, 1969) pp. 1–10.Google Scholar
  13. 17.
    The classic article on this and many other points about this way of looking at problems is Gene H. Fisher, ‘The Role of Cost-Utility Analysis’, in Program Budgeting, ed. David Novick (Washington, 1965) pp. 33–48.Google Scholar
  14. 19.
    Lack of historicism was first pointed out by Mosher in his outstanding critique of PPB. See Frederick C. Mosher, ‘Letter to the Editor’, in Public Administration Review, XXVII (Mar 1967) pp. 67–71.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 20.
    For a retrospective examination of the impact of the Southeast Asia conflict upon the relatively long-term military forces of the US and USSR, see Melvin Laird, National Security Strategy of Realistic Deterrence. Statement before the Senate Armed Services Committee, 15 Feb 1972 (Washington, 1972) pp. 32–4. Excerpts from Secretary Laird’s statement, including the pages cited, are available in the NATO library attached to my paper, ‘Defense Management in the Future’, presented to the NATO Seminar on Defense Management Systems (July 1972).Google Scholar
  16. 21.
    John Newhouse, Cold Dawn: The Story of SALT (New York, 1973).Google Scholar
  17. 23.
    George E. Reedy, The Twilight of the Presidency (New York, 1970).Google Scholar
  18. 24.
    Arthur M. Schlesinger, Jr, The Imperial Presidency (Boston, 1973).Google Scholar
  19. 25.
    Richard Hofstadter, The Paranoid Style in American Politics and Other Essays (New York, 1967).Google Scholar
  20. 26.
    An outstanding guide to the counter culture is Theodore Roszak, The Making of a Counter Culture: Reflections on the Technocratic Society and Its Youthful Opposition (Garden City, N.Y., 1969). A major philosophical treatise of particular relevance to modern defence management is Herbert Marcuse, One-Dimensional Man: Studies in the Ideology of Advanced Industrial Society (Boston, 1964).Google Scholar
  21. 27.
    For his views of the function of the policy maker, see Secretary Kissinger’s address at the Pacem in Terris Conference, Washington (Oct 1973). US Department of State, Bureau of Public Affairs, News Release, 10 Oct 73.Google Scholar
  22. 28.
    The major statement of this point in American public administration was made by Paul H. Appleby, in Policy and Administration (Birmingham, Ala., 1949).Google Scholar
  23. C. P. Snow, Science and Government (Cambridge, Mass., 1960);Google Scholar
  24. Daniel S. Greenberg, The Politics of Pure Science (New York, 1969);Google Scholar
  25. Karl von Clausewitz, On War, trans. O. J. Matthijs Jolies (New York, 1943) p. 599.Google Scholar
  26. 29.
    Quoted in Daniel P. Moynihan, Coping: Essays on the Practice of Government (New York, 1973) p. 320.Google Scholar
  27. 32.
    Emmet John Hughes, The Living Presidency: The Resources and Dilemmas of the American Presidential Office (New York, 1973) p. 167.Google Scholar
  28. 33.
    Carl Sandburg, The People, Yes (New York, 1936) p. 30.Google Scholar
  29. 34.
    Gabriel A. Almond, ‘A Developmental Approach to Political Systems’, in Political Sociology: A Reader, ed. S. N. Eisenstadt (New York, 1971) p. 57.Google Scholar
  30. 35.
    For an extraordinary discussion of this point, see Magoroh Maruyama, ‘Cybernetics’, in Planning, Programming, Budgeting: A Systems Approach to Management, ed. Fremont J. Lyden and Ernest G. Miller, 1st ed. (Chicago, 1968) pp. 330–4.Google Scholar
  31. 36.
    For an excellent discussion with examples, see Alice M. Rivlin, Systematic Thinking for Social Action (Washington, 1971).Google Scholar

Copyright information

© National Defence College 1976

Authors and Affiliations

  • John E. Dawson

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