Power Politics

  • John D. Hargreaves


Although the conquest of Dahomey had not been a primary objective of the French colonial party, the rationalizing logic of imperialism demanded that the new colony should expand: in the words of an armchair geographer, “il ne peut rester comme il est car il deviendrait une non-valeur ce qui est contraire aux principes mêmes d’une politique coloniale”.1 The obvious line of expansion was northwards towards the middle Niger; as early as December 1890 Cuverville had considered asking Behanzin to provide an escort for a French expedition from Grand Popo to Say, in hope of encouraging “les races fétichistes, bien plus accessibles à notre civilisation” to resist the Muslim opponents of the Sudanese army.2 Such a thrust would not only gratify businessmen in Marseille, who were becoming interested in a possible northern railway, but fulfil the ambition which Etienne had cherished since 1890, of challenging Goldie’s monopoly of the lower Niger. The region thus became the focus of the last and most bitter struggles of the European partition.


Power Politics Ivory Coast Neutral Zone Gold Coast French Colonialist 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. 3.
    E. M. Chilver “Paramountcy and Protection in the Cameroons”, P. Gifford and W. R. Louis, Britain and Germany in Africa (New Haven, 1967) pp. 479–91.Google Scholar
  2. 4.
    R. Kaeselitz, “Kolonialoberung und Widerstandskampf in Siid Kamerun”, in H. Stoecker, Kamerun unter deutscher Kolonialherrschaft, (E. Berlin, 1968) pp. 13–26.Google Scholar
  3. 6.
    H. Stoecker, H. Mehls, E. Mehls, “Die Eroberung des Nordostens”, in Stoecker, Kamerun, II, pp. 62–3.Google Scholar
  4. S. Passarge, Adamaua (Berlin, 1895) pp. v-vii.Google Scholar
  5. 7.
    A. H. M. Kirk-Greene, “Von Uechtritz’s expedition to Adamawa, 1893”, JHSN, 1, 1957, pp. 86–98 gives a precis of Passarge’s published account.Google Scholar
  6. 13.
    G. N. Sanderson, England, Europe and the Upper Nile (Edinburgh, 1965) pp. 106–8; DDF X no. 478, Herbette to Casimir-Périer, Tel. 21 December 1893; DDF X1, no. 3n quoting Note by Monteil, January 1894. H. Labouret, Monteil pp. 181–5; P. L. Monteil, Souvenire Vécus (1924) pp. 94–100. For text of the Agreement, Hertslet, Map of Africa n, pp. 657–60.Google Scholar
  7. 15.
    T. A. Bayer, England und der Neue Kurs (Tübingen, 1955) eh. v and pp. 117–20 (Malet to Kimberley, 7 March 1894); GP, vit, 2023, Marschall to Hatzfeldt, 17 April 1894. See also P. Grupp, Deutschland, Frankreich und die Kolonien (Tübingen, 1980 ) pp. 89–91.Google Scholar
  8. 17.
    A. Neton, Delcassé (1952) pp. 105–8.Google Scholar
  9. 19.
    E. Rabut, “Le dessein colonial des milieux d’affaires implantés en Afrique noire”, in Etudes africaines offertes à Henri Brunschwig (1982) p. 178; H. Brunschwig, Mythes et Réalités pp. 124–37;Google Scholar
  10. S. M. Persell, “Joseph Chailley-Bert and the Importance of the Union coloniale française” (1960), HJ, xviii, 1974, pp. 176–84.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 21.
    J. Stengers, “Aux origines de Fachoda: l’expedition Monteil”. Extrait de la Revue Belge de Philologie et d’Histoire, XXXVI, 1958, pp. 436–50; XXXVIII, 1960, pp. 366–404, 1040–65. Sanderson, England, Europe ch. NTH; M. Michel, La Mission Marchand (1972) ch. 1.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 22.
    See H. C. G. Matthew, The Liberal Imperialists (1973).Google Scholar
  13. 23.
    W. Roger Louis, “Sir Percy Anderson’s Grand African Strategy, 1883–1896”, EHR, LXXXI, 1966, pp. 305–11.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 25.
    R. R. James, Rosebeg (1963) pp. 348 ff.Google Scholar
  15. 26.
    A. J. P. Taylor, “Prelude to Fashoda: The Question of the Upper Nile, 1894–5”, EHR, LXV, 1950, p. 62; Sanderson, England, Europe pp. 171–80.Google Scholar
  16. 27.
    G. N. Sanderson, “The European Partition of Africa: Coincidence or Conjuncture?” in E. F. Penrose (ed.) European Imperialism and the Partition of Africa (1975) pp. 34–5; Sanderson, England, Europe p. 170.Google Scholar
  17. 46.
    H. Brunschwig, “Scramble et ‘Course au Clocher’”, JAH, XII, 1971, 139–41 shows that the French term, though often applied to the events described here, had been used as early as 1884.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 58.
    K. Vietor, Geschichtliche und Kulturelle Entwicklung unserer Schutzgebiete (Berlin, 1913) pp. 52 ff.Google Scholar
  19. 59.
    J. A. Braimah and J. R. Goody, Salaga: The Struggle for Power (1967) print translations of Krause’s letters (pp. 150–6) and of extracts from H. Klose, Togo unter deutsche Flagge (Berlin, 1899).Google Scholar
  20. 96.
    G. Baden-Powell, Policy and Wealth in Ashanti (1896), appendix to R. S. Baden-Powell. The Downfall of Prempih (1896).Google Scholar
  21. 112.
    J. D. Hargreaves, “Entente Manquée: Anglo-French Relations, 1895–1896”, CHJ, XI, 1953, pp. 65–92.Google Scholar
  22. 116.
    A. Lebon, La politique de la France en Afrique, 1896–1898 (1901). pp. x, 66.Google Scholar
  23. 122.
    P. Grupp, Deutschland, Frankreich und die Kolonien (Tübingen, 1980) esp. pp. 92–7.Google Scholar
  24. 126.
    A. N. Porter, The Origins of the South African War (Manchester, 1980) ch. n; cf. above, pp. 104.Google Scholar
  25. 148.
    J. C. Anene, The International Boundaries of Nigeria (1970) pp. 275–81.Google Scholar
  26. 150.
    Cf. J. D. Hargreaves, “Liberia: The Price of Independence”, Odu, n.s. 6, 1971, pp. 16–17; D. M. Foley, “British Policy in Liberia, 1862–1912”, Ph.D. thesis, University of London, 1965.Google Scholar
  27. 151.
    W. R. Louis, Great Britain and Germany’s Lost Colonies (Oxford, 1967).Google Scholar
  28. 152.
    W. R. Louis “Colonial Appeasement, 1936–38”, Revue belge de philologie et d’histoire, XLIX, 1971.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© John D. Hargreaves 1985

Authors and Affiliations

  • John D. Hargreaves

There are no affiliations available

Personalised recommendations