The Gathering Storm

  • John D. Hargreaves


And we are here as on a darkling plain Swept with confused alarms of struggle and flight Where ignorant armies clash by night.

Twenty years after “Dover Beach” Arnold’s uncertainties had become more widely and crudely shared by Europeans who felt their security threatened by economic depression or the extension of the franchise; and one manifestation of this was a loss of confidence in the prospects for the peaceful modernization of Africa by commerce, Christianity and civilization alone. At Berlin in 1884–5 the European powers had tried to stabilize their own rivalries by drafting rules which would allow their subjects maximum opportunities to trade in Africa with a minimum of government control. But African responses to change were in many places threatening to upset the illusory equilibrium which existed; and those social and political forces within western European states which had for some time been making for more active uses of state power (vol. 1, pp. 15–30, 201–2) were about to organize themselves more effectively.


Ivory Coast Colonial Movement Slave Trade Congo Basin Colonial Policy 
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© John D. Hargreaves 1985

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  • John D. Hargreaves

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