How much Discrimination is there against Women?
As was discussed in Chapter 4, the gross difference between male and female earnings (i.e. ‘statistical’ discrimination) will overestimate the extent of ‘pure’ discrimination. The whole of the statistical difference is unlikely to be solely the result of male. prejudice leading to women being paid less than men doing the same work and denying women equal opportunities for advancement. Part of the difference will be due to causes which are ‘economic’ rather than discriminatory in origin. In Chapter 3 we attempted to show the contribution of various factors to this differential and we were able to isolate occupational distribution, hours of work and age. Allowing for these factors the major source of the difference in average earnings was the fact that women were paid substantially less than men within each occupational category. In this chapter we attempt to isolate supply-side differences between the sexes which would ‘explain’ at least a part of the difference, so that the remainder can then be regarded as an upper estimate of the extent of discrimination.
KeywordsWage Differential Average Earning Wage Discrimination Occupational Distribution Labour Market Discrimination
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