How much Discrimination is there against Women?

  • Brian Chiplin
  • Peter J. Sloane


As was discussed in Chapter 4, the gross difference between male and female earnings (i.e. ‘statistical’ discrimination) will overestimate the extent of ‘pure’ discrimination. The whole of the statistical difference is unlikely to be solely the result of male. prejudice leading to women being paid less than men doing the same work and denying women equal opportunities for advancement. Part of the difference will be due to causes which are ‘economic’ rather than discriminatory in origin. In Chapter 3 we attempted to show the contribution of various factors to this differential and we were able to isolate occupational distribution, hours of work and age. Allowing for these factors the major source of the difference in average earnings was the fact that women were paid substantially less than men within each occupational category. In this chapter we attempt to isolate supply-side differences between the sexes which would ‘explain’ at least a part of the difference, so that the remainder can then be regarded as an upper estimate of the extent of discrimination.


Wage Differential Average Earning Wage Discrimination Occupational Distribution Labour Market Discrimination 
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  1. 1.
    See, for instance, G. S. Becker, Human Capital (National Bureau of Economic Research, 1964 ), and ‘Human Capital and the Personal Distribution of Income: An Analytic Approach’, Woytinsky Lecture No. 1, University of Michigan 1967; J. Mincer, ’On the Job Training: Costs, Returns and Some Implications’, Journal of Political Economy (Oct 1962), ’The Distribution of Labour Incomes: A Survey with Special Reference to the Human Capital Approach’, Journal of Economic Literature (Mar 1970) and Schooling, Experience and Earnings (National Bureau of Economic Research, 1974). The statistical results represented below can, however, merely be regarded as statistical functions relating e.g, experience to earnings, without necessarily implying anything about return to human capital.Google Scholar
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    H. Sanborn, ‘Pay Differences Between Men and Women’, Industrial and Labour Relations Review (July 1964).Google Scholar
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    See J. Johnston, Econometric Methods, 2nd ed. (McGraw-Hill, 1972 ).Google Scholar
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Copyright information

© Brian Chiplin and Peter J. Sloane 1976

Authors and Affiliations

  • Brian Chiplin
  • Peter J. Sloane

There are no affiliations available

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