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The Structure of Zambian Development

  • Charles Harvey

Abstract

Zambia inherited, at Independence in 1964, an economy and a social structure which very much reduced the new government’s room for manoeuvre. Virtually all the skilled jobs in the economy were occupied by white people1 whose rates of pay reflected their political power and their chances of working elsewhere. Furthermore, there was a whole infrastructure to cater for their particular needs and to minister to their standard of living, in the form of housing and urban services. Thus white housing was in scattered suburbs, separated from black housing areas. Schools, roads, hospitals, shops and the goods in them, hairdressers, cinemas, newspapers had all been developed to cater to the needs of the white population. In some cases parallel but inferior services existed for black people; but in only a few cases had services been shared in such a way that a mere change in government could make them equally available to both races.

Keywords

Development Path Cash Income Import Substitution Urban Sector Wage Bill 
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Notes

  1. 3.
    Figures from Scott R. Pearson, Petroleum and the Nigerian Economy (Stanford: Stanford University Press, 1970) andGoogle Scholar
  2. B. Van Arkadie and C. R. Frank Jr, Economic Accounting and Development Planning (Nairobi: Oxford University Press, 1966).Google Scholar
  3. 4.
    UN, Statistical Yearbook 1972. The figure for Nigeria in 1965 was 20%, but Nigerian population figures are unreliable even by African standards.Google Scholar
  4. 5.
    P. Deane, Colonial Social Accounting (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1953) pp. 21–2.Google Scholar
  5. 6.
    M. Bostock and C. Harvey (eds), Economic Independence and Zambian Copper (New York: Praeger, 1972) Table 5.2.Google Scholar
  6. 7.
    See R. E. Baldwin, Economic Development and Export Growth: a Study of Northern Rhodesia, 1920–1960 (Los Angeles: University of California Press, 1966) pp. 16ff., for a description of the economy before the development of copper mining; see alsoGoogle Scholar
  7. J. Fry and C. Harvey, ‘Copper and Zambia’, in J. Cownie and S. R. Pearson (eds), Commodity Exports and African Economic Development (Boston, DC Heath: Lexington Books, 1974) section 1.Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    Zambia, Ministry of Labour, ‘The Process of Zambianisation in the Mining Industry’ (Lusaka, 1968) p. 9, quoted byGoogle Scholar
  9. N. Kessel in C. M. Elliott (eds), Constraints on the Economic Development of Zambia (Nairobi: Oxford University Press, 1971)p. 265.Google Scholar
  10. 9.
    See Richard Hall, The High Price of Principles: Kaunda and the White South (London: Hodder and Stoughton, 1969) ch. 12, especially on the security problems created by half the whites at Independence having relations or business contacts in Rhodesia or South Africa.Google Scholar
  11. 14.
    Zambia, Second National Development Plan (Lusaka: Government Printer, 1971) p. 50, table 1–11.Google Scholar
  12. 17.
    M. Burawoy, The Colour of Class on the Copper mines: from African Advancement to Zambianisation, University of Zambia, Institute for African Studies, Zambian papers no. 7 (1972) pp. 33ff., ‘Pressures on the successor’. The quotation is from p. 38.Google Scholar
  13. 21.
    See Robert Bates, Unions, Parties and Political Development: a Study of Mine-workers in Zambia (New Haven: Yale University Press, 1971)passim. Google Scholar

Copyright information

© International Institute for Labour Studies 1976

Authors and Affiliations

  • Charles Harvey

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