Advertisement

The Policy of Responsible Government

  • John Manning Ward
Part of the Cambridge Commonwealth Series book series

Abstract

Responsible government was established in North America after notably little deliberation in Britain. Grey, who among British statesmen had given the greatest thought to the new policy, was soon uneasy about its consequences and became unwilling to extend it beyond North America.2 He believed in the empire of settlement and the future of great British communities overseas, but he did not believe in the political fitness of the Cape Colony, or New Zealand or the Australian colonies, to have responsible government. Although he remarked in 1849 that the Australian colonies would eventually qualify to enjoy party government on the British model, he still thought in 1880 that none of them had yet done so, although five of them already possessed it. His disappointment at the breakdown of the fiscal unity of the empire strengthened his distaste for allowing any further relaxations of British control over the self-governing colonies, while his growing conservatism distrusted colonial democracy.3

Keywords

Imperial Control Responsible Government Select Committee Executive Council Constitutional Reform 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. 1.
    Russell to Grey, 22 May 1850, Grey of Howick Papers.Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    See Chapter 8 and below.Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Minute of 22 Feb 1850 on FitzRoy to Grey, 13 Oct 1849, CO 201/416; ‘Earl Grey on Victorian Politics’, in Victorian Review, I (1880), 857f.; Grey, ‘Past and Present Policy in South Africa’ and ‘How shall we retain the Colonies?’, in Nineteenth Century, V (1879), 583f. and 985f.Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Ward, Grey and the Australian Colonies, Chapters 2–4.Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Stephen’s minute of 10 July 1806 on G. Grey to Gladstone, CO 209/42; Ward, Grey and the Australian Colonies, 35f.Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    See Chapter 5. Also Ward, Grey and the Australian Colonies, Chapter 2; Morrell, British Colonial Policy, Chapters 13 and 15.Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Minute of 17 Mar 1848, CO 881/1, No. I.Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    Minute, no date, by Stephen, on the above, CO 881/1, No. I.Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    Ward, Grey and the Australian Colonies, Chapter 4; Ward, in JMH, XXXI, 189f.; Grey to Merivale, 9 May 1848, CO 881/1, No. I.Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    CO 881/1, Nos. II and III; also PP, 1849, XXXV [Cmd 1074], 33f.Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    PD, CVII, 464f. (18 July 1849).Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    Ward: in JRAHS, L, 321f., and in HSANZ, IX, 244f.Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    PD, CVIII, 535f. (8 Feb 1850).Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    Minute of 7 Mar 1850, Grey of Howick Papers, Colonial Papers; Ward, Grey and the Australian Colonies, 115, note 20.Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    The Times, 9 Feb and 30 Apr 1850.Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    PD, CIX, 1319f. (22 Mar 1850).Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    PD, CIX, 1272f. (22 Mar 1859).Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    Ward, in JRAHS, L, 323f,; Morrell, British Colonial Policy in the Mid-Victorian Age, 16f.Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    PD, CXXIV, 165f. (17 Feb 1853).Google Scholar
  20. 20.
    Newcastle to G. Grey, 5 June 1861, NeC 10, 885.Google Scholar
  21. 21.
    Elgin to Newcastle, 4 Feb, 23 Apr and 21 May 1853, NeC 9552.Google Scholar
  22. 22.
    Godley to Adderley, 18 June 1851, in Adderley, Letters of Godley to Adderley, 177.’Google Scholar
  23. 23.
    Godley to Adderley, 17 Mar 1852, in ibid., 184.Google Scholar
  24. 24.
    A. Matthias to Newcastle, 20 Dec 1852, NeC 9650; F. A. Weld to Newcastle, 26 Dec 1852, NeC 9601.Google Scholar
  25. 25.
    Godley to Newcastle, 9 July 1853, NeC 9605a.Google Scholar
  26. 26.
    Merivale, Lectures, 2nd ed. (1861), 532f.Google Scholar
  27. 27.
    Merivale to Hawes, 15 Sep 1848 (CO 217/199); Merivale’s minutes on Head to Grey, 28 Feb 1852, and on Wynyard to Newcastle, 9 June 1854, both CO 209/123.Google Scholar
  28. 28.
    Merivale, Lectures, 641.Google Scholar
  29. 29.
    Ward, in JMH, XXXI, 189f.Google Scholar
  30. 30.
    J. Stephen to A. Stephen, [day and month doubtful] 1852, Papers of A. Stephen (ML).Google Scholar
  31. 31.
    FitzRoy to Grey, 15 Jan 1852, CO 201/450.Google Scholar
  32. 32.
    Merivale to G. Grey, 21 May 1854, CO 201/467.Google Scholar
  33. 33.
    Irving, in HSANZ, XI, 192f.Google Scholar
  34. 34.
    Atlas, 29 Apr 1848; Knight, Illiberal Liberal, 108f.Google Scholar
  35. 35.
    SMH, 13, 17 and 20 Jan 1849; also Maitland Mercury, 18 and 21 Apr 1849; PA, 27 Jan, 10 Feb and 14 Apr 1849.Google Scholar
  36. 36.
    SMH, 19 June 1849; FitzRoy to Grey, 30 June 1849, and E. S. Hall to Grey, 14 Nov 1849, CO 201/414; Knight, Illiberal Liberal, 224.Google Scholar
  37. 37.
    PA, 23 June 1849.Google Scholar
  38. 38.
    Enclosed in FitzRoy to Grey, 30 June 1849, CO 201/414.Google Scholar
  39. 39.
    SMH, 31 July and 27 Aug 1849; Maitland Mercury, 5 Sep 1849; PA, 25 Aug 1849.Google Scholar
  40. 40.
    PA, 9 and 30 Dec 1848; Daily News, 22 Nov 1848; Atlas, 23 Dec 1848; SMH, 23 Dec 1848; Objects, Laws and Regulations of the Constitutional Association, (Sydney, 1848), ML.Google Scholar
  41. 41.
    Fairbanks case reported, SMH, 30 July and 17 Aug 1849.Google Scholar
  42. 42.
    Irving, in HSANZ, XI, 199; Maitland Mercury, 15 Sep 1849; letter from ‘An Australian’, SMH, 20 Sep 1849.Google Scholar
  43. 43.
    SMH, 12 June, 6 and 10 Aug 1849; V & P (LC, NSW), 1849, I, 234; Knight, Illiberal Liberal, 231.Google Scholar
  44. 44.
    SMH, 10 Aug and 12 Sep 1849; PA, 15 Sep 1849.Google Scholar
  45. 45.
    George Allen Journal (ML), 7 May and 22 June 1850.Google Scholar
  46. 46.
    SMH, 21 Feb 1850, interpreted in light of Denison to Deas Thomson, 7 May 1851, Deas Thomson Papers (ML), II.Google Scholar
  47. 47.
    SMH 27 and 28 Aug 1850.Google Scholar
  48. 48.
    Maitland Mercury, 27 Feb, 24 Aug and 7 Sep 1850; SMH, 13 Sep 1850.Google Scholar
  49. 49.
    Melbourne, Early Constitutional Development, 2nd ed., 363.Google Scholar
  50. 50.
    Irving, ‘The Development of Liberal Politics in New South Wales’ (Ph. D. thesis), 396.Google Scholar
  51. 51.
    SMH, 21 and 28 Aug 1850.Google Scholar
  52. 52.
    SMH, 28 Aug 1850; V & P (LC, NSW), 1850, I, 26 and 27 Aug 1850; Freeman’s Journal, 29 Aug 1850.Google Scholar
  53. 53.
    SMH, 18 Sep 1850; PA, 21 Sep 1850; FitzRoy to Grey, 8 Oct 1850, PP, 1851, XLV [Cmd 1361], 187.Google Scholar
  54. 54.
    Ward, Grey and the Australian Colonies, 60f. and Chapter 8, passim; Roe, Quest for Authority, 53, 72, 198f.; Parkes, Australian History, I, 10.Google Scholar
  55. 55.
    V & P (LC, NSW), 8 Apr 1851.Google Scholar
  56. 56.
    V & P (LC, NSW), 1 May 1851; FitzRoy to Grey, 18 June 1851, CO 201/441; Melbourne, Constitutional Development, 379f.; SMH, 9 Apr, 2 and 7 May 1851.Google Scholar
  57. 57.
    SMH, 22, 29 Dec 1851; PA, 27 Dec 1851.Google Scholar
  58. 58.
    Empire, 10 and 14 Apr 1851.Google Scholar
  59. 59.
    Diaries, etc., of Emily Macarthur, March 1851, Macarthur Papers (restricted), A. 4351.Google Scholar
  60. 60.
    SMH, 26 Mar 1851; also Denison to Deas Thomson, 26 Mar 1851, Deas Thomson Papers, II, 568.Google Scholar
  61. 61.
    Empire, 10 Apr 1851; C. Nicholson to A. Cunninghame, 12 Feb 1851, Cunninghame Papers (ML), A. 3180.Google Scholar
  62. 62.
    FitzRoy to Grey, 21 Feb 1852, CO 201/451.Google Scholar
  63. 63.
    HRA, I, xxxiv, 127.Google Scholar
  64. 64.
    Hamilton to Macarthur, 27 Oct 1846, Macarthur Papers A. 2922; Hamilton to Clive, 11 Sep 1850, Collaroy Papers, A. 2407.Google Scholar
  65. 65.
    Hamilton to G. Clive, 21 June 1852, Collaroy Papers, A. 2401; Hamilton to Wentworth, 7 Sep 1853, Autograph Letters of Henry Parkes, A. 63.Google Scholar
  66. 66.
    V & P (LC, NSW), 29 Sep and 19 Oct 1851; Empire, 31 Aug 1851.Google Scholar
  67. 67.
    Minute of 19 June on FitzRoy to Grey, 15 Jan 1852, CO 201/450; Merivale to G. Grey, 21 June 1854, CO 201 /467.Google Scholar
  68. 68.
    Pakington to Merivale, 30 Sep 1852, CO 201/450.Google Scholar
  69. 69.
    Pakington to FitzRoy, 1 Oct 1852, CO 201/450.Google Scholar
  70. 70.
    Pakington to FitzRoy, 15 Dec 1852, CO 201/450, referring to Grey to FitzRoy, 23 Jan 1852, PP, 1852, XXXIV [Cmd 1534], 10f.; minutes by Elliot, Merivale and Desart on FitzRoy to Grey, 21 Feb 1852, CO 201 /451.Google Scholar
  71. 71.
    Denison to Deas Thomson, 3 June 1853 (Deas Thomson Papers, II, 715), interpreted the dispatch correctly.Google Scholar
  72. 72.
    FitzRoy to Pakington, 31 Aug 1852 (received 27 Dec), CO 201/453.Google Scholar
  73. 73.
    Newcastle to FitzRoy, 18 Jan 1853, CO 201/453.Google Scholar
  74. 74.
    FitzRoy to Pakington, 1 Nov 1852, CO 201/455.Google Scholar
  75. 75.
    Newcastle to FitzRoy, 1 Feb 1853, CO 201/455.Google Scholar
  76. 76.
    SMH, 13 Dec 1852, V & P (LC, NSW), 16 Dec 1852; FitzRoy to Pakington, 1 Jan 1853 (confidential), CO 201/463.Google Scholar
  77. 77.
    Harvey to Grey, 31 Oct 1849, PP, 1849, XXXIV, [Cmd 1126], 51.Google Scholar
  78. 78.
    SMH, 22 Sep 1852.Google Scholar
  79. 79.
    Irving, in HSANZ, XI, 200; SMH, 22 Sep and 10 Dec 1852.Google Scholar
  80. 80.
    Silvester, Speeches in the Legislative Council, 133.Google Scholar
  81. 81.
    Loveday, in JRAHS, XLII, 187f.Google Scholar
  82. 82.
    SMH, 23 Nov 1853; Empire, 1 Oct and 26 Nov 1853.Google Scholar
  83. 83.
    SMH, 30 Nov 1853.Google Scholar
  84. 84.
    SMH, 29 Jan, 19 and 25 Feb, 2 Apr, 6, 7 and 17 Sep and 9 Nov 1853; Empire, 7 Mar, 2 Apr and 1 Oct 1853; PA, 19 Mar 1853.Google Scholar
  85. 85.
    V & P (LC, NSW), 1853, II, 123f.Google Scholar
  86. 86.
    Empire, 14 June, 6 and 15 Aug 1853.Google Scholar
  87. 87.
    Empire, 1 Oct 1853; SMH, 9 Dec 1853; Cowper to Parkes, 25 Nov 1853, Parkes Papers (ML), VI.Google Scholar
  88. 88.
    FitzRoy to Pakington (confidential), 1 Jan 1853, and minutes thereon, CO 201/463; Mundy to Deas Thomson, 4 Mar 1853, Deas Thomson Papers, III; Lang to Kerr, 30 Apr 1853, William Kerr Papers, II.Google Scholar
  89. 89.
    Minutes by Merivale on FitzRoy to Grey, 2 Jan, 26 May and 29 June 1852 (CO 201/452), 26 Aug 1852 (CO 201/453), and FitzRoy to Pakington, 20 Oct 1852 (CO 201/454); Merivale, Lectures, 642f.Google Scholar
  90. 90.
    Morrell, British Colonial Policy, 276f.; W. Porter to H. Smith, 17 Mar 1848, H. Smith to Grey, 29 July 1848, and Grey to Smith, 20 Jan 1851, all CO 48/289; Grey to Smith (cancelled draft), 20 Jan 1851, CO 48/308; PC Committee Report, PP, 1850, XXXVIII [Cmd 1137], 100f.; Ward, in AJPH, III, 18f.Google Scholar
  91. 91.
    PP, 1852–3, LXVI, 244 [Cmd 1635], 24f. [Cmd 1636]; Newcastle in the Lords, 3 PD, CXXVIII, 248f. (16 June 1853).Google Scholar
  92. 92.
    See Chapter 4; Grey, Colonial Policy, I, 294f.; Morrell, British Colonial Policy in the Mid-Victorian Age, Chapters 12 and 13, and British Colonial Policy, Chapter 11.Google Scholar
  93. 93.
    Correspondence of Grey and C. E. Grey in CO 137/302 and CO 138/68.Google Scholar
  94. 94.
    Russell to Grey, 19 Oct 1851, Grey of Howick Papers.Google Scholar
  95. 95.
    Correspondence in PP, 1852–3, LXVII (HC 76); minute, 7 June 1852, CO 137/315.Google Scholar
  96. 96.
    PD, CXXVII, 947f. (30 June 1853).Google Scholar
  97. 97.
    Barkly to Newcastle: 10 Dec 1853, NeC 9553; 10 Apr 1854, PP, 1854, XLII [Cmd 19061, 89f. Minute by Taylor on Barkly to Newcastle, 10 Apr 1854, CO 137/323, 17 and 18 Vict., c. 54.Google Scholar
  98. 98.
    Sires, in Journal of Comparative Legislation, XXII, 188f.; minute by Merivale on Darling to Stanley, 10 June 1858, CO 137/337.Google Scholar
  99. 99.
    Morrell, British Colonial Policy in the Mid-Victorian Age, Chapter 13.Google Scholar
  100. 100.
    Gunn, Political History of Newfoundland, Chapter 9; PP, 1854–5, XXXVI (HC 273).Google Scholar
  101. 101.
    Le Marchant to Grey, 10 Apr 1849, CO 194/31; Grey to Le Marchant, 13 Dec 1851, CO 195 /21.Google Scholar
  102. 102.
    Le Marchant to Grey, 26 Feb 1852, CO 194/36.Google Scholar
  103. 103.
    Hume to Newcastle, 25 July 1853, Little and Parsons to Newcastle, 25, 28 July 1853, CO 194 /140.Google Scholar
  104. 104.
    PP, 1854, XXXVI (HC 273), 19, 26.Google Scholar
  105. 105.
    See Head to Grey, 6 Nov 1850, CO 188/113; Elgin to Grey, 14 Sep 1847, in Doughty, Elgin—Grey Papers, I, 68f.; Grey to Bannerman, 31 Jan 1851, CO 227/10; Grey, Colonial Policy, I, 274.Google Scholar
  106. 106.
    Newcastle to Hamilton, 21 Feb 1854, CO 195/21; Gunn, Political History of Newfoundland, 134f.Google Scholar
  107. 107.
    Newcastle to FitzRoy, 4 Aug 1853, PP, 1854, XLIV, 62f.Google Scholar
  108. 108.
    Merivale to G. Grey, CO 201/467, f. 460.Google Scholar
  109. 109.
    Enclosed in FitzRoy to Pakington, 1 Nov 1852, CO 201/455.Google Scholar
  110. 110.
    For example, Ellice to Grey, 12 Mar 1853, Grey of Howick Papers.Google Scholar
  111. 111.
    FitzRoy to Newcastle (confidential), 17 Nov 1853, CO 201/467; V & P (LC, NSW), 1853, II, 119f.; Melbourne, Constitutional Development, 401f.Google Scholar
  112. 112.
    Silvester, Speeches in the Legislative Council, 74, 133.Google Scholar
  113. 113.
    SMH, 15 Dec 1853; Irving, in HSANZ, XI, 205.Google Scholar
  114. 114.
    Ward, in JRAHS, L, 326f. FitzRoy to Newcastle, 4 Oct 1853 (CO 201/466) had argued for a nominee upper house.Google Scholar
  115. 115.
    Douglass and Wentworth in SMH, 15 Dec 1853; Wentworth, SMH, 21 Dec 1853; Irving, in HSANZ, XI, 202.Google Scholar
  116. 116.
    SMH, 21 Dec 1853.Google Scholar
  117. 117.
    Deas Thomson’s views, SMH, 9 and 21 Dec 1853; Irving, in HSANZ, XI, 212f.Google Scholar
  118. 118.
    SMH, 9 Dec 1853.Google Scholar
  119. 119.
    The Bill was silent on the powers of the new upper house on money Bills. Main, in HSANZ, VII, 377.Google Scholar
  120. 120.
    Irving, in HSANZ, XI, 202f. and references therein.Google Scholar
  121. 121.
    F. Rogers to R. W. Church, 23 Sep 1854, in Blachford, Letters, 157.Google Scholar
  122. 122.
    FitzRoy to Newcastle, 17 Nov 1853, CO 201/467; SMH, 6 Dec 1853; Cowper to Parkes, 25 Nov 1853, Parkes Correspondence (ML), VI.Google Scholar
  123. 123.
    Clauses XVII and XLII.Google Scholar
  124. 124.
    Petitions in FitzRoy to Newcastle, 10, 11 and 18 Nov 1853, CO 201/467; Empire, 14 June, 6 Aug and 1 Oct 1853; Loveday, in JRAHS, XLII, 187f.Google Scholar
  125. 125.
    Nicholson to J. Macarthur, 21 Apr 1853, Macarthur Papers, A. 2923.Google Scholar
  126. 126.
    Rusden, Australia, III, 72f.Google Scholar
  127. 127.
    Nicholson to Cunninghame, Cunninghame Papers, III, A. 3180.Google Scholar
  128. 128.
    Nicholson to Macarthur, 21 Apr 1853, Macarthur Papers, A. 2923.Google Scholar
  129. 129.
    Robertson to Lang, 26 Nov 1853, Lang Papers, VI, A. 2226; also P. P. King to P. G. King, 18 Aug 1853, King Papers, A. 1977.Google Scholar
  130. 130.
    SMH, 23 Aug 1853.Google Scholar
  131. 131.
    For Lowe’s attitude, see Melbourne, Constitutional Development, 420f.; Ward, Grey and the Australian Colonies, 367f.Google Scholar
  132. 132.
    Nicholson to Macarthur, 21 Apr 1853, Macarthur Papers, A. 2923.Google Scholar
  133. 133.
    Wentworth to Macarthur, 3 Apr 1853, Macarthur Papers, A. 2923.Google Scholar
  134. 134.
    SMH, 22 Dec 1853.Google Scholar
  135. 135.
    SMH, 8 and 21 Dec 1853.Google Scholar
  136. 136.
    George Allen Journal (ML), 25 Oct 1854.Google Scholar
  137. 137.
    Cowper to Parkes, [day and month doubtful] May 1855, Parkes Papers, XVI.Google Scholar
  138. 138.
    Cf. MorrellBritish Colonial Policy in the Mid-Victorian Age, 17.Google Scholar
  139. 139.
    On responsible government in New Zealand, see ibid., 202f.Google Scholar
  140. 140.
    Minute by Merivale, 11 Nov 1854, on Wynyard to Newcastle, 9 June 1854, CO 209/123.Google Scholar
  141. 141.
    Grey to officer administering the government, 8 Dec 1854, and minutes by Merivale and Grey, 6 and 7 Dec 1854, CO 209/124.Google Scholar
  142. 142.
    Rogers’s report on the Constitution Acts, 6 Sep 1854, CO 881/1, No. V II.Google Scholar
  143. 143.
    Paper by Russell, no date, CO 881/1, No. IX.Google Scholar
  144. 144.
    Wentworth to Macarthur, 15 July 1854, Macarthur Papers, XXVII, A. 2923; Sir George Grey on Deas Thomson to Colonial Office, 26 Feb 1855, CO 201/492; W. C. Wentworth, A Reply to Lowe’s Speech in the House of Commons.Google Scholar
  145. 145.
    Russell to Denison, 20 July 1855, CO 202/66; SMH, 1 Nov 1855; Freeman’s Journal, 6 Oct, 3 and 10 Nov 1855.Google Scholar
  146. 146.
    Merivale, Lectures, 644.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© John Manning Ward 1976

Authors and Affiliations

  • John Manning Ward
    • 1
  1. 1.University of SydneyAustralia

Personalised recommendations