Advertisement

The Canadas Troubles, 1831–41

  • John Manning Ward
Part of the Cambridge Commonwealth Series book series

Abstract

The Howick Act of 1831 soon became the short test of British politicians’ views on the Canadas. Ought it be repealed, suspended, or followed by further concessions? Was it a late return to the policy followed by Pitt and Grenville in 1791, or a mere palliative to reduce colonial dissatisfaction?

Keywords

Responsible Government Executive Council Legislative Council Mother Country Family Compact 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. 1.
    H. T. Manning, In CHR, XXXIII, 203.Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Westminster Review, XLVI (1839), 269.Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Kriegel, in EHR, LXXXVI, 23.Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Bentham to O’Connell, 31 Aug 1828, quoted in Bowring, Works of Jeremy Bentham X, 598.Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Hanham, Reform of the Electoral System, 8.Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Fairley, Selected Writings of Mackenzie 318f.; Lindsey Life and Times of Mackenzie 234; H. T. Manning, in CHR XXXIII, 228f.Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Robert Stephen Rintoul (1787–1858) founded the Spectator in 1828 and made it the ‘weekly organ of the Wakefield party’ (Semmel, Free Trade Imperialism 125).Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    John Black (1783–1855) edited The Morning Chronicle, 1817–43.Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    Fairley, Selected Writings of Mackenzie, 326f.Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    Ibid., 247; Journal of the third Earl Grey, 20 and 30 June 1833.Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    Fairley, Selected Writings of Mackenzie, 323.Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    Memorandum by James Stephen, 30 Mar 1832, CO 537/22.Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    Fraser’s Magazine, XXXIII (1846), 471f.Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    See Melbourne to Grey, 5 and 7 Jan 1834, Grey to Melbourne, 7 Jan 1834 (copies in Grey of Howick Papers), and Journal of the third Earl Grey, 27 Mar 1833.Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    Saunders, in Ontario History XLIX, 165f. (quotation at 178); Craig, Upper Canada 107f.Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    Craig, in CHR, XXIX, 338f.; Colborne to Hay, 8 May 1833, CO 42/244.Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    Craig, in CHR, XXIX, 350f.Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    R. R. Palmer, The Age of the Democratic Revolution: The Challenge (Princeton, 1959 ), 215.Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    Fairley, Selected Writings of Mackenzie, 259; Craig, in CHR, XXIX, 343f.Google Scholar
  20. 20.
    C. W. New, in CHR XX, 119f. at 123f.Google Scholar
  21. 21.
    Craig, in CHR XXIX, 345f.Google Scholar
  22. 22.
    Creighton, Empire of the St Lawrence, 303; Craig, in CHR XXIX, 344.Google Scholar
  23. 23.
    The Massacre of Montreal’, in H. T. Manning, Revolt of French Canada, 347f.Google Scholar
  24. 24.
    Ellice to Howick, 2 Jan 1832, Grey of Howick Papers.Google Scholar
  25. 25.
    Wade, The French Canadians 141; H. T. Manning, Revolt of French Canada 202, 344.Google Scholar
  26. 26.
    Creighton, Empire of the St Lawrence, 276f.; H. T. Manning, Revolt of French Canada, 192, 203; Ellice to Howick, 4 Sep 1832, Grey of Howick Papers.Google Scholar
  27. 27.
    Creighton, Empire of the St Lawrence, 276f.Google Scholar
  28. 28.
    Aylmer to Goderich, 30 Jan 1833, CO 42/241; Ouellet, Papineau, 46f.Google Scholar
  29. 29.
    Petition of the House of Assembly, in Kennedy, Documents 258f.Google Scholar
  30. 30.
    Correspondent 26 Jan 1833.Google Scholar
  31. 31.
    The British constitution was prescriptive. See Chapter 1.Google Scholar
  32. 32.
    Address of the Legislative Council, in Kennedy, Documents 262f.Google Scholar
  33. 33.
    Kennedy, Documents 266f; Ouellet, Papineau 77f., Montreal Gazette 27 May 1834, quoting Dundas Weekly Post.Google Scholar
  34. 34.
    Burroughs, The Canadian Crisis 64.Google Scholar
  35. 35.
    PD XXII, 767f. (25 April 1834); Burroughs, The Canadian Crisis 64; Leader, Life and Letters of Roebuck 66f; 3 PD XXVI, 669 (9 Mar 1835).Google Scholar
  36. 36.
    PD XXII, 790f. (25 Apr 1834).Google Scholar
  37. 37.
    PP 1834, XVIII; Evidence, PP 1837, VII (96); H. T. Manning, in Bulletin of the IHR XXX, 59.Google Scholar
  38. 38.
    PD XXV, 920 (4 Aug 1834).Google Scholar
  39. 39.
    Journal of the third Earl Grey, 1 Mar, 5, 9 and 22 May 1834, 3 Nov 1835; 3 PD XXVI, 670 (9 Mar 1835).Google Scholar
  40. 40.
    Spring-Rice to Aylmer, 29 June 1834 (confidential), in PAC, Report 1931, 307f. Minutes of the Conference (of Spring-Rice, Roebuck, Viger and Morin) at the Colonial Office, 22 June 1834. Papers of the third Earl Grey, Colonial Papers, Canada, No. 46.Google Scholar
  41. 41.
    Especially, Aylmer to Spring-Rice, 11 Sep and 8 Oct 1834, CO 42/252.Google Scholar
  42. 42.
    Memorandum by Stephen, 19 Aug 1834, minute by Hay, 22 Sep 1834, CO 537/137 (also CO 880/1).Google Scholar
  43. 43.
    Peel to Croker, 14 Apr 1835, in Jennings, Croker Papers II, 273; Peel in the Commons, 3 PD XXVI, 699f. (9 Mar 1835) and XXVIII, 881f. (12 June 1835).Google Scholar
  44. 44.
    Stephen to Howick, 20 Mar 1835, Grey of Howick Papers.Google Scholar
  45. 45.
    PD XXVI, 703 (9 Mar 1835); H. T. Manning, in Bulletin of the IHR XXX, 59f.Google Scholar
  46. 46.
    Papineau to Roebuck, 25 Mar 1835, in PAC, Report 1928 22; Creighton, Empire of the St Lawrence 297.Google Scholar
  47. 47.
    Howick’s memoranda of 24 Apr and 28 Nov 1835, Papers of the third Earl Grey, Colonial Papers, Canada, nos. 54 and 64; Howick to Glenelg, 11 July 1835, Grey of Howick Papers.Google Scholar
  48. 48.
    Journal of the third Earl Grey, 3 Nov 1835, indicates that some of Howick’s ideas may have come from Tocqueville, Democracy in America.Google Scholar
  49. 49.
    The Times 23 Dec 1837.Google Scholar
  50. 50.
    Journal of the third Earl Grey, 4 July 1835.Google Scholar
  51. 51.
    Instructions to Gosford Commission, in Kennedy, Documents (no. CXVIII), and in CO 537/138. Manning, in CHR, XXXIII, 344f.; Stephen to Howick, 25 Oct 1835, Grey of Howick Papers.Google Scholar
  52. 52.
    Manning, in CHR XXXIII, 347f.Google Scholar
  53. 53.
    The King’s pinion according to Journal of the third Earl Grey, 3 June and 9 July 1835.Google Scholar
  54. 54.
    Journal of the third Earl Grey, 18, 19 and 27 Nov 1835; Manning and Galbraith, in CHR, XLII, 50f.Google Scholar
  55. 55.
    PP 1837, XXIV (50), 14.Google Scholar
  56. 56.
    Journal of the third Earl Grey, 17 Apr 1836.Google Scholar
  57. 57.
    Journal of the third Earl Grey, 18 Nov 1835.Google Scholar
  58. 58.
    Glenelg to Head, 5 Dec 1835, in Kennedy, Documents 412f.; Craig, Upper Canada 233f.Google Scholar
  59. 59.
    Hume to Mackenzie, 5 Dec 1835, in Head, A Narrative (London, 1839), 36f.Google Scholar
  60. 60.
    Correspondent and Advocate 18 Feb 1836.Google Scholar
  61. 61.
    Craig, Upper Canada 234f.Google Scholar
  62. 62.
    Head to Glenelg, 5 Feb 1836, CO 42/249; Craig, in CHR XXIX, 334.Google Scholar
  63. 63.
    W. W. Baldwin to R. Baldwin, 27 Apr 1836, Baldwin Papers, A. 83.Google Scholar
  64. 64.
    Craig, Upper Canada 236f.Google Scholar
  65. 65.
    Constitution 27 July 1836.Google Scholar
  66. 66.
    Wilson, Robert Baldwin Chapter 3; W. W. Baldwin to R. Baldwin, 17 May 1836, Baldwin Papers, A. 83.Google Scholar
  67. 67.
    W. W. Baldwin to R. Baldwin, 27 Aug 1836, Baldwin Papers, A 83.Google Scholar
  68. 68.
    PD CVIII, 550 (8 Feb 1850).Google Scholar
  69. 69.
    R. Baldwin to Glenelg, 13 July 1836, in Kennedy, Documents 335f., and PAC, Report 1923 329f.Google Scholar
  70. 70.
    G. Grey to R. Baldwin, 4 Aug 1836, quoted in Wilson, Robert Baldwin 54.Google Scholar
  71. 71.
    Wilson, Robert Baldwin 57f.Google Scholar
  72. 72.
    Constitution 27 July 1836; W. W. Baldwin to R. Baldwin, 30 July 1836, Baldwin Papers, A. 83.Google Scholar
  73. 73.
    Head to Glenelg, 30 Dec 1836, PAC, Colonial Office Records, Q. 391; H. T. Manning, in CHR, XXXIII, 361f.Google Scholar
  74. 74.
    Journal of the third Earl Grey, 14 May, 9 June, 3 July and 12 Aug 1836.Google Scholar
  75. 75.
    Journal of the third Earl Grey, 16–26 Apr, 14 May and 9–15 June 1836.Google Scholar
  76. 76.
    Journal of the third Earl Grey, 21 Apr 1836.Google Scholar
  77. 77.
    CO 537/137; PAC, Report 1929, 161f.Google Scholar
  78. 78.
    PAC, Report 1929 161.Google Scholar
  79. 79.
    See Chapter 6 and p. 248fGoogle Scholar
  80. 80.
    PAC, Report 1929 170f.Google Scholar
  81. 81.
    Journal of the third Earl Grey, 18, 23, 24 and 29 Aug 1835, and ‘Notes from my Journal for 1835’, 30 May, 3 and 8 June 1836; Howick to Melbourne, 30 May and 2 June 1836, and Melbourne to Howick, 1 June 1836, Grey of Howick Papers; Papers of the third Earl Grey, Colonial Papers, Nos 63 (dated 30 May 1836) and 64; Broughton, Recollections of a Long Life V, 41f.; 3 PD XXXVIII, 1209f. (14 Apr 1837).Google Scholar
  82. 82.
    Howick to Melbourne, 15 June 1836 (copy), and Melbourne to Howick, 17 June 1836, Grey of Howick Papers.Google Scholar
  83. 83.
    Glenelg to Gosford, 7 June 1836, in Kennedy, Documents 431f.; Journal of the third Earl Grey, 14 June 1836; Howick to Melbourne, 15 June 1836 (copy), Grey of Howick Papers.Google Scholar
  84. 84.
    Elliot to Howick, 18 July 1836, Grey of Howick Papers.Google Scholar
  85. 85.
    Stephen to Howick, 29 Aug 1836, Grey of Howick Papers.Google Scholar
  86. 86.
    Stephen’s minute of 15 Nov 1836, CO 537/137; Sir Charles Grey’s plan of 17 Nov 1836, PP, 1837, XXIV (50), 246f.Google Scholar
  87. 87.
    A. P. Newton, Federal and Unified Constitutions 37; Ward, in AJPH III, 18f.; Higham, in EHR XLI, 190f., 366f.Google Scholar
  88. 88.
    Stephen’s minute of 20 Dec 1836, CO 537/137; Burroughs, The Canadian Crisis, 85f.Google Scholar
  89. 89.
    Howick to Glenelg, 4 Jan 1837 (copy), Papers of the third Earl Grey, Colonial Papers, No. 69; epitome of proposed Canada Act, 19 Jan 1837, CO 537/137; Journal of the third Earl Grey, 18 and 23 Jan 1837.Google Scholar
  90. 90.
    Journal of the third Earl Grey, 30 Jan and 12 Feb 1837; Stephen to Howick, 2 Jan 1837, Papers of the third Earl Grey, Colonial Papers, No. 67.Google Scholar
  91. 91.
    Memorandum on Canada, Feb 1837, Papers of the third Earl Grey, Colonial Papers, No. 92; 3 PD, XXXVI, 1287f. (6 Mar 1837); Kennedy, Documents, 434f.; Russell to Howick, 2 Apr 1837, Grey of Howick Papers; Journal of the third Earl Grey, 3 Apr 1837.Google Scholar
  92. 92.
    PD XXXVI, 128f., XXXVII, 767f., XXXVIII, 198f. (6 Mar to 24 Apr, 9 May 1837); Journal of the third Earl Grey, 9 May 1837.Google Scholar
  93. 93.
    Memorandum on Canada by Lord John Russell, Apr 1837, Papers of the third Earl Grey, Colonial Papers, No. 93.Google Scholar
  94. 94.
    Howick to Russell, 30 Mar 1837, Russell to Howick, 30 Mar 1837, and Howick to Russell, 7 Apr 1837 (copy), Grey of Howick Papers.Google Scholar
  95. 95.
    Russell carefully said ‘removable’, implying a discretion (then still existing) in the Crown. See Chapter 6.Google Scholar
  96. 96.
    See comment on Russell’s phrase ‘independent sovereign’ at p. 76f.Google Scholar
  97. 97.
    Memorandum of 2 Nov 1837, Papers of the Third Earl Grey, Colonial Papers, No. 97.Google Scholar
  98. 98.
    Glenelg to Sir A. Campbell, 31 Aug 1836, in PAC, Report 1931, 376f.; Howick to Glenelg, 11 July 1835, Grey of Howick Papers.Google Scholar
  99. 99.
    Glenelg to Gosford, 14 July 1837, quoted in PAC, Report 1931 416f.Google Scholar
  100. 100.
    Paper by Howick, 5 Apr 1837, Papers of the third Earl Grey, Colonial Papers, No. 94.Google Scholar
  101. 101.
    Melbourne to Howick, 8 Aug 1837, Grey of Howick Papers.Google Scholar
  102. 102.
    Stephen to J. C. Stephen, 18 Nov 1837, Stephen Papers, Journals, XI, 49f.; Stephen to Arthur, 22 Nov 1837, Arthur Papers (ML); Journal of the third Earl Grey, 20 June, 30 Oct, 1, 7, 10 and 30 Nov, and 1 Dec 1837.Google Scholar
  103. 103.
    Journal of the third Earl Grey, 1 Dec 1837.Google Scholar
  104. 104.
    Journal of the third Earl Grey, 22 Dec 1837.Google Scholar
  105. 105.
    PD XXXIX, 1428f. (22 Dec 1837); Journal of the third Earl Grey, 22 Dec 1837.Google Scholar
  106. 106.
    Melbourne to Durham, 22 July 1837, in Reid, Durham, II 137f.; Melbourne to Russell, 31 Dec 1837, in Russell, Early Correspondence II 213f.; Journal of the third Early Grey, 29 Dec 1837.Google Scholar
  107. 107.
    Stephen to Howick, 28 Dec 1837, Grey of Howick Papers.Google Scholar
  108. 108.
    Papers of the third Earl Grey, Colonial Papers, No. 99.Google Scholar
  109. 109.
    Melbourne to Howick, 2 Jan 1838, Grey of Howick Papers; Journal of the third Earl Grey, 2 Jan 1838.Google Scholar
  110. 110.
    Journal of the third Earl Grey, 29 Dec 1837.Google Scholar
  111. 111.
    Journal of the third Earl Grey, 29 Dec 1837; Papers of the third Earl Grey, Colonial Papers, No. 100.Google Scholar
  112. 112.
    Journal of the third Earl Grey, 2, 3 and 5 Jan 1838.Google Scholar
  113. 113.
    Journal of the third Earl Grey, 23 Dec 1837 and 5 Jan 1838; memorandum on Canada, 3(?) Jan 1838, and Howick to Russell, 2 Jan 1838, both in Russell Papers, PRO 30/22, Box 3.Google Scholar
  114. 114.
    Memorandum read to Cabinet, 30 May 1836, Russell Papers, PRO 30/22, Box 2; Journal of the third Earl Grey, 20 June, and 7 and 30 Nov 1837.Google Scholar
  115. 115.
    Melbourne to Durham, 22 July 1837, in Reid, Durham II, 137f.Google Scholar
  116. 116.
    New, Durham 319, from Lambton Papers, Ellice to Durham, 29 Dec 1837; The Times 7 Apr 1838.Google Scholar
  117. 117.
    Memorandum of January 1838 (?), in Russell, Early Correspondence 215f.; Russell to Melbourne (copy), 25 Oct [1838], Russell Papers, PRO 30/22, Box 3; Ormsby, Emergence of the Federal Concept 15.Google Scholar
  118. 118.
    Journal of the third Earl Grey, 30 Dec 1837; Russell to Melbourne, 25 Oct [ 1838 ], Russell Papers, PRO 30/22, Box 3.Google Scholar
  119. 119.
    See Chapter 6. Howick to Ellice, 4 Jan 1838 (Private), Ellice Papers, E. 22 (National Library of Scotland); Martin, The Durham Report, 12f.; G. Grey to Howick, 16 Jan 1838, Grey of Howick Papers.Google Scholar
  120. 120.
    Melbourne to Durham, 7 Jan 1838, in Reid, Durham II, 149f.; Durham to Grey, 15 Jan 1838, Grey of Howick Papers (second Earl); New, Durham 531.Google Scholar
  121. 121.
    PD XL, 7f. (16 Jan 1838).Google Scholar
  122. 122.
    PD XL, 60f. (Grote), 87f. (Buller), 107f. (Warburton), 310f. (Roebuck) (16–29 Jan 1838); also 177, 217 (Melbourne and Brougham) (18 Jan 1838).Google Scholar
  123. 123.
    Gladstone’s memorandum on Peel’s remarks to Tory leaders, 20 Jan 1838, quoted in Morley, Gladstone, I 641f.Google Scholar
  124. 124.
    The matter went to Cabinet. Journal of the third Earl Grey, 15 and 18–26 Jan 1838; Ormsby, Emergence of the Federal Concept, 16.Google Scholar
  125. 125.
    Journal of the third Earl Grey, 19 Jan 1838.Google Scholar
  126. 126.
    Glenelg to Durham, 20 Jan 1838, in PAC, Report 1923 24.Google Scholar
  127. 127.
    Journal of the third Earl Grey, 8 Jan 1838; Papers of the third Earl Grey, Colonial Papers, No. 102.Google Scholar
  128. 128.
    See Chapter 2, p. 16.Google Scholar
  129. 129.
    Roebuck, Colonies of England 190f.; 3 PD CX, 1426 (13 May 1850).Google Scholar
  130. 130.
    Durham, Report II, 304; New, Durham 359f., 462.Google Scholar
  131. 131.
    Glenelg to Durham, 20 Jan 1838, in PAC, Report 1923 24.Google Scholar
  132. 132.
    Glenelg to Durham, 21 Apr 1838, in PAC, Report 1931 465.Google Scholar
  133. 133.
    Journal of the third Earl Grey, 8 Feb 1839.Google Scholar
  134. 134.
    Journal of the third Earl Grey, 8, 9 and 15 Jan, 3 Feb, 15 Aug, 20 and 21 Oct, 7 Nov, and 7 Dec 1838, 22, 26 and 31 Jan, 8 Feb, 8 and 17 May 1839. Durham to Glenelg, 13 Sep 1838, CO 42/283; The Times, 18 Oct 1838.Google Scholar
  135. 135.
    Journal of the third Earl Grey, 7 Dec 1838; Russell to Melbourne (copy), 9 Dec 1838, Russell Papers, PRO 30/22, Box 3; Melbourne to Russell, 8 and 19 Dec 1838, in Sanders, Lord Melbourne’s Papers, 440f. 443f.; Durham to G. Grey, 20 Dec 1838, CO 42 /284.Google Scholar
  136. 136.
    Ed. C. P. Lucas, 3 vols (Oxford, 1912 ).Google Scholar
  137. 137.
    Martin, The Durham Report, passim.Google Scholar
  138. 138.
    New, Durham 369, 409, 411f.; Craig, Upper Canada 256f.Google Scholar
  139. 139.
    Durham Papers, II, 1–43 (1 Aug 1838), quoted in Wilson, Life of Robert Baldwin 157.Google Scholar
  140. 140.
    R. Baldwin to Durham, 23 July 1858, quoted in PAC, Report 1923, 326.Google Scholar
  141. 141.
    Cf. Wrong, Charles Buller 33.Google Scholar
  142. 142.
    PD LIV, 741 (29 May 1841).Google Scholar
  143. 143.
    PD LIV, 710f. (May 1840).Google Scholar
  144. 144.
    Durham, Report II, 77.Google Scholar
  145. 145.
    Ibid., II, 150f.Google Scholar
  146. 146.
    Ibid., II, 277f.Google Scholar
  147. 147.
    Ibid., II, 279f.Google Scholar
  148. 148.
    Ibid.,.II, 278.Google Scholar
  149. 149.
    Ibid., II, 279f.Google Scholar
  150. 150.
    Ibid., II, 280.Google Scholar
  151. 151.
    Ibid., II, 279.Google Scholar
  152. 152.
    Ibid., II, 282f.Google Scholar
  153. 153.
    Russell’s list of possible disasters in Mirror of Parliament 1840, IV, 342f.Google Scholar
  154. 154.
    Durham, Report II, 283.Google Scholar
  155. 155.
    Ibid., II, 282 and note.Google Scholar
  156. 156.
    Ibid., II, 282.Google Scholar
  157. 157.
    Ibid., II, 70, 292f. (‘Hopeless inferiority of the French Canadian race’).Google Scholar
  158. 158.
    Ibid., II, 70, 285.Google Scholar
  159. 159.
    Ibid., II, 304, 307f. Durham’s exaggerated account of a race war was challenged at once by Russell (3 PD XLVII, 1254f., 3 June 1839) and Nielson (quoted in Hamel, La Rapport de Durham 46).Google Scholar
  160. 160.
    Durham, Report II, 70.Google Scholar
  161. 161.
    Ibid., I, 149f., and II, 113, 324.Google Scholar
  162. 162.
    Labouchere to Barkly, 2 May 1857, in ‘Confidential Dispatches from the Secretary of State to the Governor of Victoria’, I, Part 1 (Public Library of Victoria).Google Scholar
  163. 163.
    Durham, Report II, 327.Google Scholar
  164. 164.
    J. L. Morison, ‘The Mission of the Earl of Durham’, in CHBE VI, 306; and British Supremacy and Canadian Self-Government 244.Google Scholar
  165. 165.
    Durham, Report, II 327.Google Scholar
  166. 166.
    See G. Wrong, Charles Buller 101.Google Scholar
  167. 167.
    H. T. Manning: in CHR, XXXIII, 203f. and 341f.; and in Bulletin of the IHR, XXX, 41f.Google Scholar
  168. 168.
    See Chapters 6 and 8.Google Scholar
  169. 169.
    Journal of the third Earl Grey, 15 and 22 Jan, and 8 May 1839. Howick dutifully supported his wife, Maria Copley of the well known Tory family.Google Scholar
  170. 170.
    Journal of the third Earl Grey, 15 Jan 1839.Google Scholar
  171. 171.
    Howick to Durham, 7 Feb 1839, Grey of Howick Papers; New, Durham, 133.Google Scholar
  172. 172.
    Journal of the third Earl Grey, 2 Feb 1839.Google Scholar
  173. 173.
    Durham to Howick, 8 Feb 1839, Grey of Howick Papers; Wakefield to Durham, 9 Feb 1839, Durham Papers, in PAC, Report 1923, 200; Journal of the third Earl Grey, 5 Feb 1839.Google Scholar
  174. 174.
    Durham, Report II, 304, and III, 305f.; Glenelg to Durham, 20 Jan 1838; Trotter, in Canadian Historical Association Report 1925, 55f.Google Scholar
  175. 175.
    Journal of the third Earl Grey, 9 Jan 1838.Google Scholar
  176. 176.
    PD LIV, 746 (29 May 1840).Google Scholar
  177. 177.
    Colonel Charles Grey, later General Grey, Private Secretary to Prince Albert and later to Queen Victoria.Google Scholar
  178. 178.
    Colonel Grey to Grey, 20 July 1838, 25 Feb, 17 Apr, 13 May and 24 June 1839; Ormsby, Crisis in the Canadas, 108f.Google Scholar
  179. 179.
    Grey to Colonel Grey, 16 May 1839, Grey of Howick Papers; Colonel Grey to Grey, 24 June 1839; Ormsby, Crisis in the Canadas, 110; Colonel Grey to Lady Durham, 12 Apr 1839, quoted in New, Durham, 531.Google Scholar
  180. 180.
    See Chapter 6.Google Scholar
  181. 181.
    Howick’s proposed minute and minute adopted by Cabinet, both in Journal of the third Earl Grey, 11 May 1839; 3 PD LI, 770 (29 Jan 1839).Google Scholar
  182. 182.
    Journal of the third Earl Grey, 2 Mar and 13 Apr 1839, Papers of the third Earl Grey, Colonial Papers, No. 110 (23 Feb 1839 ); New, Durham, 554, 561.Google Scholar
  183. 183.
    Journal of the third Earl Grey, 30 Mar 1839; Ormsby, Emergence of the Federal Concept, 75f.Google Scholar
  184. 184.
    Journal of the third Earl Grey, 26 Mar 1839; Ellice’s plan, 21 Dec 1838, CO 880 /1.Google Scholar
  185. 185.
    Journal of the third Earl Grey, 30 Mar 1839.Google Scholar
  186. 186.
    Journal of the third Earl Grey, 28 May 1839. See Chapter 6.Google Scholar
  187. 187.
    Arthur to Normanby, 2 July 1839, CO 42/463; New, Durham, 542f.; Journal of the third Earl Grey, 2 June 1839; Craig, Upper Canada, 265f.Google Scholar
  188. 188.
    PD XLVII, 1254f. (3 June 1839).Google Scholar
  189. 189.
    Fifth Resolution, in Kennedy, Documents 435.Google Scholar
  190. 190.
    Ormsby, Emergence of the Federal Concept 48f.; New, Durham 526.Google Scholar
  191. 191.
    PD LIII, 1062f. (13 Apr 1840), LIV, 1263f. (29 May 1840); Journal of the third Earl Grey, 27 Apr, 12 June and 7 July 1840.Google Scholar
  192. 192.
    The Union Act, 3 and 4 Vict., c. 35.Google Scholar
  193. 193.
    Liverpool to Craig, 12 Sep 1810, in Kennedy, Documents 276f., discussed in Chapter 2.Google Scholar
  194. 194.
    Russell to Poulett Thomson, 14 Oct 1839, in Kennedy, Documents 522f.Google Scholar
  195. 195.
    In the West Indies and New South Wales as well as in the Canadas. See Chapters 4, 5 and 6.Google Scholar
  196. 196.
    W. Smith, in Canadian Historical Association Report 1928, 41f.; Journal of the third Earl Grey, 3 June 1839.Google Scholar
  197. 197.
    Buller to Durham, 4 June 1839, Durham Papers, in PAC, Report 1923, 204.Google Scholar
  198. 198.
    Russell to Poulett Thomson and the lieutenant-governors of Upper and Lower Canada, Nova Scotia, New Brunswick, Prince Edward Island, Newfoundland and Bermuda, 16 Oct 1839, CO 42/297; Kennedy, Documents, 524f.; Knaplund, in CHR, V, 3f.; Kinchen, in CHR, XXXVI, 382f.; Butler, in CHJ, II, 248f.Google Scholar
  199. 199.
    See p. 253f.Google Scholar
  200. 200.
  201. 201.
    Russell to Poulett Thomson, 7 and 14 Sep 1839; Kennedy, Documents, 516f., 522f.Google Scholar
  202. 202.
    Russell to Campbell, 30 Apr 1840, CO 217/174.Google Scholar
  203. 203.
    PD LIII, 733f. (13 Apr 1840).Google Scholar
  204. 204.
    Kennedy, Documents 480f.; Chisholm, Speeches and Letters of Howe.Google Scholar
  205. 205.
    Harvey, in CHR XX, 161f. at 175; Morrell, British Colonial Policy 19; correspondence of Russell and Howe, CO 217/171–4.Google Scholar
  206. 206.
    Reprinted in 1840 as Responsible Government for Colonies (later edition, ed. G. M. Wrong; Oxford, 1926); Wakefield to Durham, 26 Dec 1839, Durham Papers, in PAC, Report 1923 206.Google Scholar
  207. 207.
    Wrong, Charles Buller 92f.Google Scholar
  208. 208.
    Ibid., 113, 101.Google Scholar
  209. 209.
    Martin, The Durham Report Chapter 3.Google Scholar
  210. 210.
    See above, p. 75f. 3 PD LIII, 1056f. (13 Apr 1840), LIV, 710f., 724f., 1121f., 1263f. (29 May 1840).Google Scholar
  211. 211.
    Knaplund, in CHR XX, 196.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© John Manning Ward 1976

Authors and Affiliations

  • John Manning Ward
    • 1
  1. 1.University of SydneyAustralia

Personalised recommendations