The impact of proinsulin on insulin research

  • N. R. Lazarus


Proinsulin was discovered as the precursor of insulin by Steiner et al. in 19671. A selective review of the literature eight years after the discovery of proinsulin shows that this hormone has had considerable influence on insulin research.


Insulin Secretion Islet Cell Tumour Insulin Molecule Insulin Granule Insulin Treated Diabetic 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. 1.
    Steiner, D. F., Cunningham, D. D., Spigelman, L. and Aten, B. Insulin biosynthesis: evidence for a precursor. Sciences, 157 (1967), 697CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Meienhoffr, J., Schnabel, B., Bremer, H., Brinkhoff, O., Zabel, R., Sroka, W., Klostermeyer, H., Brandenburg, D., Okuda, T. and Zahn, H. Synthese der Insulinketten und ihre Kombination zu insulinaktiven Praparaten. Z. Naturforsch., 18b (1963), 1120Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Lindsay, D. G. Intramolecular cross-linked insulin. FEBS Letters, 21 (1972), 105CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Brandenburg, D., Busse, W-D., Gattner, H-G., Zahn, H., Wollmer, A., Glieman, J. and Puls, W. (1973). Structure-function studies with chemically modified insulin. In Peptides 1972, H. Hanson and H. D. Zakubke, eds., North-Holland, p. 270Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Melani, F., Rubenstein, A. H., Oyer, P. E. and Steiner, D. F. Identification of proinsulin and C-peptide in human serum by a specific immunoassay. Proc. Nat. Acad. Sci., 67 (1970), 148CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Block, M. B., Rosenfield, R. L., Mako, M. E., Steiner, D. F. and Rubenstein, A. H. Sequential changes in ß-cell function in insulin-treated diabetic patients assessed by C-peptide immunoreactivity. New Eng. J. Med., 288 (1973), 1144CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Katz, A. I. and Rubenstein, A. H. Metabolism of proinsulin, insulin and C-peptide in the rat. J. Clin. Invest., 52 (1973), 1113CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Stoll, R. W., Touber, J. L., Menahan, L. A. and Williams, R. H. Clearance of porcine insulin, proinsulin and connecting peptide by the isolated rat liver. Proc. Soc. Exp. Biol. Med., 133 (1970), 894CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Turner, R. C. and Johnson, P. C. Suppression of insulin release by fish-insulin induced hypoglycaemia with reference to the diagnosis of insulinomas. Lancet, 30th June (1973), 1483Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    Dayhoff, O. M. Atlas of protein sequence and structure 1973. Nat. Biomed. Res. Fdn. (1972), D-176Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    Markussen, J. and Volund, A. A new method of calculating evolutionary rates of proteins applied to insulin and C-peptides. Int. J. Peptide Protein Res., 6 (1974), 79CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Steiner, D. F., Clark, J. L., Nolan, C., Rubenstein, A. H., Margoliash, E., Aten, B. and Oyer, P. E. Proinsulin and the biosynthesis of insulin. Recent Progress in Hormone Research, 25 (1969), 207Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    Tager, H. S., Emdin, S. O., Clark, J. L. and Steiner, D. F. Studies on the conversion of proinsulin to insulin. H. Evidence for a chymotrypsin like cleavage in the connecting peptide region of insulin precursors in the rat. J. Biol Chem., 248 (1973), 3476Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    Schlichtkrull, J. and Jorgensen, K. H. (1969). South African Patent, 031256Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    Schlichtkrull, J. (1973). Monocomponent insulin and its clinical implications. 5th E.F. Copp Lecture. Novo Research InstituteGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Bruni, B., Castellazzi, R., Osenda, M. and Turco, G. L. Serum IgG 125Iinsulin-binding capacity in long-term insulin treated diabetics, as an indication for monocomponent insulin therapy. Panminerva Medica, 15 (1973), 231Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    Yalow, R. S. and Berson, S. A. ‘Big, big insulin’. Metabolism, 22 (1973) 703CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Beischer, W., Melani, F. and Keller, L. ‘Big, big insulin’, a reality? Diabetologia, 10 (1974), 358Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    Tung, A. K. and Zerega, F. Biosynthesis of glucagon in isolated pigeon islets. Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun., 45 (1971), 387CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Noe, B. D. and Bauer, G. E. Evidence for glucagon biosynthesis involving a protein intermediate in islets of the Anglerfish (Lophius Americanus). Endocrinology, 89 (1972), 642CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Roth, J., Gorden, P. and Pastan, I. ‘Big insulin’: A new component of plasma insulin detected by immunoassay. Proc. Nat. Acad. Sci., 61 (1968), 138CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Katz, A. I. and Rubenstein, A. H. Metabolism of proinsulin, insulin and C-peptide in the rat. J. Clin. Invest., 52 (1973), 1113CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Gutman, R., Lazarus, N. R. and Recant, L. Electrophoretic characterisation of circulating human proinsulin and insulin. Diabetologia, 5 (1972), 136CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Goldsmith, S. J., Yalow, R. S. and Berson, S. A. Significance of human plasma insulin Sephadex fractions. Diabetes, 18 (1969), 834CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Gorden, P. and Roth, J. Plasma insulin fluctuations in the ‘big’ insulin component in man after glucose and other stimuli. J. Clin. Invest., 48 (1969), 2225CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Melani, F. Proinsulin secretion by a pancreatic β-cell adenoma: proinsulin and C-peptide secretion. New Eng. J. Med., 283 (1970), 713CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Gutman, R. A., Lazarus, N. R., Penhos, J. C., Fajans, S. and Recant, L. Circulating proinsulin-like material in patients with functioning insulinomas. New Eng. J. Med., 284 (1971) 1003CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Blackard, W. G., Garcia, A. R. and Brown, C. L., Jr. Effect of streptozotocin on qualitative aspects of plasma insulin in a patient with a malignant islet cell tumour. J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab., 31 (1970), 315CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Creutzfeldt, W., Creutzfeldt, C. and Frerichs, H. (1970). Evidence for different modes of insulin secretion. In The Structure and Metabolism of the Pancreatic Islets, S. Falkmer, B. Hellman and I-B. Taljedal, eds., Pergamon Press, p. 181CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© The Contributors 1976

Authors and Affiliations

  • N. R. Lazarus

There are no affiliations available

Personalised recommendations