The earliest members of the ox and deer family possessed horns and open orbits but apparently the combination was not a suitable one and in the course of evolution they developed the closed orbit for protection. The smaller deer and a few of the larger, including the moose, retain the open orbit but these do not fight seriously with horns, they are usually content with an interlacing and pushing technique.
KeywordsLarge Animal Closed Orbit Open Orbit Animal World Early Member
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