The Influence of Demographic Variables on Development via their Impact on Education

  • Gavin W. Jones
Part of the International Economic Association Series book series (IEA)


Rising educational levels amongst the labour force are generally considered to constitute a very significant source of the increase in a country’s output over time.1 From the individual’s point of view, schooling and post-school training appear to explain a substantial share of the difference in earnings between individuals (35 per cent in a recent study by Mincer, 1974). Demographic trends, in so far as they affect the pace and pattern of educational development in a country, will therefore affect both the rate of growth of output and the pattern of income distribution. Population trends will, of course, have a variety of complex effects on both growth of output and the pattern of income distribution, quite apart from those linked to educational development, and population growth will in turn be influenced by trends in output and income distribution. But this paper confines itself to the narrower task of identifying some of the ways in which population trends influence the growth of output through their effects on the development of schooling, in the developing countries.


Population Growth Labour Force Fertility Decline Enrolment Rate Educational Development 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. N. Bennett et al., ‘Problems of Financing the Thai Educational System During the 1960s and 1970s’, mimeo, Educational Planning Division, Ministry of Education, Bangkok (June 1972 ).Google Scholar
  2. M. Blaug, ‘The Rate of Return to Investment in Education in Thailand’, mimeographed (Bangkok, 1971 ).Google Scholar
  3. O. D. Hoerr, ‘Education, Income and Equity in Malaysia’, Economic Development and Cultural Change, vol. 21 (Jan 1973).Google Scholar
  4. G. W. Jones, ‘Educational Goals in Tropical Africa’, Population Growth and Economic Development in Africa, ed. S. H. Ominde and C. N. Ejiogu (London, 1972 ).Google Scholar
  5. G. W. Jones Population Growth and Educational Planning in Less Developed Countries (Appleton Century Crofts, 1975 ).Google Scholar
  6. G. W. Jones and P. Gingrich, ‘The Effects of Differing Trends in Fertility and of Schultz, T. P., cont. Educational Advance on the Growth, Quality and Turnover of the Labor Force’, Demography, vol. 5, no. 1 (1968).Google Scholar
  7. H. Leibenstein, The Impact of Population Growth on Economic Welfare — Nontraditional Elements’, Rapid Population Growth: Consequences and Policy Implications, National Academy of Sciences ( Johns Hopkins Press, Baltimore, 1971 ).Google Scholar
  8. D. C. McLelland, ‘Does Education Accelerate Economic Growth?’, Economic Development and Cultural Change, xrv, 3 (Apr 1966).Google Scholar
  9. S. Merrett, ‘The Rate of Return to Education: A Critique’, Oxford Economic Papers, 18, no. 3 (Nov 1966).Google Scholar
  10. J. Mincer, ‘Schooling, Age and Earnings’, Human Capital and Personal Income Distribution, National Bureau of Economic Research (New York, 1974 ).Google Scholar
  11. O.E.C.D. Study Group in the Economics of Education, The Residual Factor and Economic Growth (Paris, 1964 ).Google Scholar
  12. T. K. Ruprecht and C. Wahren, Population Programmes and Economic and Social Development, O.E.C.D. Development Centre (Paris, 1970 ).Google Scholar
  13. T. N. Châu, Population Growth and Costs of Education in Developing Countries, International Institute for Educational Planning (Paris, 1972 ).Google Scholar
  14. T. P. Boo, ‘Education in Singapore’, Educational Publications Bureau, Ministry of Education (Singapore, 1970 ).Google Scholar
  15. P. Taubman and T. Wales, ‘The Inadequacy of Cross-Section Age-Earnings Profiles when Ability is not held Constant’, Annals of Economic and Social Measurement, 1 /3 (1972).Google Scholar
  16. D. Turnham, The Employment Problem in Less Developed Countries, O.E.C.D. Development Centre (Paris, 1971 ).Google Scholar
  17. United Nations, World Population Prospects, 1965–2000, as Assessed in 1968 ESA/P/WP.37 (17 Dec 1970).Google Scholar
  18. University of Indonesia, Demographic Institute, Report on the Urban Unemployment Survey, 1972 (1974).Google Scholar

Copyright information

© The International Economic Association 1976

Authors and Affiliations

  • Gavin W. Jones
    • 1
  1. 1.Demographic InstituteUniversity of IndonesiaIndia

Personalised recommendations