Between about 750 BC and 550 BC Greek colonies were established not only along the Aegean coast of Asia Minor but also further west along the coasts of southern Italy and Sicily. Some of the most famous names in the history of European philosophy and science worked in these colonies. Pythagoras, an emigrant from the Ionian island of Samos, settled at Croton situated on the ‘instep’ of Italy. Today a single standing column is all that remains of the Greek city. Empedocles was a prominent citizen of Acragas at the western end of Sicily. Xenophanes, whom we have already mentioned, was driven from his Ionian birthplace of Kolophon, and spent the rest of a very long life wandering in Sicily and southern Italy. Parmenides is eternally associated with Elea, the remains of which are now being excavated between Paestum and Sapri.
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