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Abstract

When in August 1914 the nation-states of Europe went to war with each other, only three socialist parties voted against the military plans of their governments; the remainder, including the largest socialist and Labour parties, voted for war. The occasion shattered many fond beliefs in international working-class solidarity.1 Yet international socialism was not extinguished by the war, it was only deactivated.2 Socialist opponents of the war kept alive efforts towards a speedy ending of hostilities. These efforts got an accession of strength after the revolution in Russia in March 1917, and were symbolised by the proposal for a conference of socialist parties at Stockholm in the autumn of that year.3 Though that conference did not materialise, a substantial portion of the European socialist parties did revive the International at Berne in February 1919. Lenin, who was pursuing his objective of world revolution with single-minded devotion and who had ignored the peace efforts at Stockholm,4 felt disgusted at the lack of a revolutionary strategy in most of the leaders of the Second International, and founded a rival International the following month.5 He had earlier denounced the social-democratic supporters of the war as ‘social patriots’.

Keywords

Free Trade Trade Union Labour Party Socialist Party Labour History 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

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Notes

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Copyright information

© Partha Sarathi Gupta 1975

Authors and Affiliations

  • Partha Sarathi Gupta
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of HistoryUniversity of DelhiIndia

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