The Conflict of the Orders The Second Stage

  • M. Cary
  • H. H. Scullard


During the century that followed the Gallic invasion the Romans, while continuing to hammer out a compromise between the claims of the two Orders, also completed the main stage in the development of their republican constitution. But these internal developments were achieved against a background of severe external threats and wars which inevitably affected not only economic life but also the tempo of the pressure which the plebeians could exert upon the patricians. The wars themselves will be described in the next chapter.


Fourth Century Patrician Family Military Duty Greek City Republican Period 
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Notes and References

  1. 3.
    P. Willems, Le Sénat de la république romaine, i. (1878), 103.Google Scholar
  2. 6.
    T. Frank, History of Rome (1923), 79.Google Scholar
  3. 8.
    On Camillus and Concord see A. Momigliano, Cl. Qu. 1943, 111 ff. (= Secondo Contrib. 89 ff.).Google Scholar
  4. 9.
    See E. S. Staveley, Athenaeum 1955, 26 ff., for this solution of the problem.Google Scholar
  5. 10.
    On the patronage which some of the premier houses of the patricians bestowed upon promising political aspirants, see F. Münzer, Römische Adelsparteien and Adelsfamilien (1920), esp. 8 ff.Google Scholar
  6. which works out the affinities and repulsions of the ruling houses in full (if at times somewhat delusive) detail. See also E. Ferenczy, ‘The Rise of the Patrician—Plebeian State’, Acta antiqua Acad. Scient. Hungaricae 1966, 113 ff.Google Scholar
  7. 11.
    On Appius Claudius see A. Garzetti, Athenaeum 1947, 175 ff.;Google Scholar
  8. E. S. Staveley, Historia 1959, 410 ff.;Google Scholar
  9. E. Ferenczy, Acta antiqua Acad. Scient. Hungaricae 1967, 27 ff. (written in English). Details of his career and reforms, as given in the sources, raise very many problems which cannot be discussed here but are dealt with in the three articles quoted above.Google Scholar
  10. Regarding his tribal reform see also P. Fraccaro, Athenaeum 1935, 150 ff. (= Opuscula, ii (1957), 149 ff.)Google Scholar
  11. and L. R. Taylor, Voting Districts of the Rom. Rep. (1960), 11 and 133 ff. Fraccaro has disproved the earlier view that the landless had not hitherto been enrolled in any tribe. Ferenczy has argued that Appius’s reform was more fundamental: he allotted all citizens to the tribes, regardless of their domicile or financial position, thus transforming the nature of the tribes (cf. Cleisthenes at Athens), and that this reform stood after 304 except that the propertyless only were relegated to the urban tribes. The purpose, apart from politics, will have been to strengthen the army. This reconstruction appears somewhat radical.Google Scholar
  12. 13.
    See in general E. S. Staveley, Greek and Roman Voting and Elections (1972).Google Scholar
  13. 15.
    On alleged impeachments by tribunes before the tribal assembly see E. G. Hardy, JRS 1913, 25 ff.; Ogilvie, Livy, 323 ff. None of the tribunician state trials recorded prior to 287 should probably be accepted as historical.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© The representatives of the estate of the late M. Cary and H. H. Scullard 1975

Authors and Affiliations

  • M. Cary
    • 1
  • H. H. Scullard
    • 1
  1. 1.University of LondonUK

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