Economic, Cultural and Religious Developments

  • M. Cary
  • H. H. Scullard


IN the later days of M. Aurelius the tide of prosperity which had set in under Augustus and endured through two centuries ceased to flow. The Great Plague and the Marcomannic Wars, followed by the civil wars at the end of the second century, acted as a brake on further progress. The reigns of the two Severi were an interval of partial recuperation, and the first third of the third century, taken as a whole, was a period of stability rather than of decay. But with the death of Severus Alexander an era of rapid decline and even of disintegration commenced.


Fourth Century Roman World Roman Empire Greek Historian Religious Development 
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Notes and References

  1. 7.
    For bibliography see Chap. 29, n. 17. See especially Ward-Perkins, Roman Architecture (1970), chs 20, 21;Google Scholar
  2. J. M. C. Toynbee, The Art of the Romans (1965);Google Scholar
  3. R. B. Bandinelli, Rome: the Late Empire, Roman Art A.D. 200–400 (1971);Google Scholar
  4. M. Grant, The Climax of Rome (1968), ch. 5.Google Scholar
  5. 8.
    On Piazza Armerina see G. V. Gentili, La villa erculia di P. Armerina (1959).Google Scholar
  6. On the palace at Split see J. J. Wilkes, Dalmatia (1969), 287 ff.Google Scholar
  7. On Trier see E. M. Wightman, Roman Trier and the Treveri (1971).Google Scholar
  8. On the Isola Sacra and Vatican cemeteries see J. M. C. Toynbee, Death and Burial in the Roman World (1971), 82 ff., 87 ff.Google Scholar
  9. On Dura see M. Rostovtzeff, Dura-Europus and its Art (1938).Google Scholar
  10. On early Christian art see F. van der Meer and C. Mohrmann, Atlas of the Early Christian World (1958);Google Scholar
  11. M. Gough, The Early Christians (1961).Google Scholar
  12. 16.
    See W. R. Inge, The Philosophy of Plotinus3 (1929);Google Scholar
  13. T. Whittaker, The Neoplatonists2 (1918);Google Scholar
  14. E. R. Dodds, Select Passages illustrating Neoplatonism (1924);Google Scholar
  15. P. Courcelle, Les Lettres grecques en Occident (1943). Hermes Trismegistus was a translation of the Egyptian ‘Thoth the very great’. On the Hermetica see the edition by A. D. Nock and A. J. Festugière, i–iv (1945–54)Google Scholar
  16. and Festugière, La Révélation d’Hermès Trismégistus i–iv (1944–54).Google Scholar
  17. On some of the trends of religious belief in the period for M. Aurelius to Constantine see E. R. Dodds, Pagan and Christian in an Age of Anxiety (1965).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    On the methods of conversion in the Roman world see A. D. Nock, Conversion (1933).Google Scholar

Copyright information

© The representatives of the estate of the late M. Cary and H. H. Scullard 1975

Authors and Affiliations

  • M. Cary
    • 1
  • H. H. Scullard
    • 1
  1. 1.University of LondonUK

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