Roman Society from a.d. 70 to 180

  • M. Cary
  • H. H. Scullard


The age in which the Roman Empire attained its widest extension also witnessed its highest economic development.


Roman History Roman Emperor Roman Empire Roman Society Modus Vivendi 
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Notes and References

  1. 1.
    On Roman Belgium see F. Cumont, Comment la Belgique fut romanisée2 (1918).Google Scholar
  2. 9.
    On Gallic terra sigillata (when found in Britain it was at first misleadingly called samian ware) see C. Simpson, Central Gaulish Potters (1958).Google Scholar
  3. 10.
    On Roman finds in Ireland see F. Haverfield, English Historical Review 1913, 1 ff.;Google Scholar
  4. S. P. O’Riordain, Proc. Royal Irish Academy 1948, 35 ff. The distribution of these finds, which are commonest on the coast of Ulster, indicates that they came from Britain (presumably from Chester), rather than from Gaul.Google Scholar
  5. 12.
    On the transcontinental route to China (from Antioch to Loyang, some 4500 miles) see F. Hirth, China and the Roman Orient (1885);Google Scholar
  6. J. I. Miller, The Spice Trade of the Roman Empire (1969), ch. 7.Google Scholar
  7. 18.
    On Opramoas cf. above, p. 643 n. 17. On Herodes Atticus see P. Graindor, Herode Atticus et sa famille (1930);Google Scholar
  8. G. W. Bowersock, Greek Sophists in the Roman Empire (1969).Google Scholar
  9. 19.
    On the canabae see R. MacMullen, Soldier and Civilian in the Later Roman Empire (1963), 119 ff.Google Scholar
  10. 28.
    See A. L. F. Rivet (ed.), The Roman Villa in Britain (1969);Google Scholar
  11. B. Thomas, Römische Villen in Pannonien (1964);Google Scholar
  12. F. Cumont, Comment la Belgiquefut romanisée (1918).Google Scholar
  13. On Pliny’s villa see Ep. ii. 17 and v. 6, and Sherwin-White, ad loc. and the reconstructions in H.H. Tanzer, The Villas of Pliny the Younger (1924).Google Scholar
  14. A. G. McKay, Houses, Villas and Palaces in the Roman World (1975).Google Scholar
  15. 29.
    See J. M. C. Toynbee, The Art of the Romans (1965), and The Hadrianic School (1934);Google Scholar
  16. D. E. Strong, Roman Imperial Sculpture (1961).Google Scholar
  17. 30.
    See J. M. C. Toynbee, The Flavian Reliefs from the Palazzo della Cancelleria in Rome (1957).Google Scholar
  18. 44.
    Plutarch, although a visitor to Rome where he lectured, spent much of his time in his home town of Chaeronea, where he was influential in governing and literary circles. See R. H. Barrow, Plutarch and his Times (1967);Google Scholar
  19. C. P. Jones, Plutarch and Rome (1971);Google Scholar
  20. D. A. Russell, Plutarch (1973).Google Scholar
  21. 46.
    On the Second Sophistic see G. W. Bowersock, Greek Sophists in the Roman Empire (1969). The passage of Aristides is xlvi, p. 404 (Dindorf).Google Scholar
  22. 48.
    On Galen, who became court-physician at Rome under Marcus Aurelius, see G. Sarton, Galen of Perga-mum (1954);Google Scholar
  23. G. W. Bowersock, Greek Sophists in the Roman Empire (1969), ch. v;Google Scholar
  24. J. Scarborough, Roman Medicine (1970).Google Scholar
  25. 53.
    On Fronto’s letters see E. Chanplin, IRS 1974, 136 ff.Google Scholar
  26. 55.
    On the religious life of the period see T. R. Glover, The Conflict of Religions in the Early Roman Empire9(1920);Google Scholar
  27. J. Beaujeu, La religion romaine a l’apogée de l’Empire, i (1955);Google Scholar
  28. E. R. Dodds, Pagan and Christian in an Age of Anxiety (1965);CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. J. Ferguson, The Religions of the Roman Empire (1970).Google Scholar

Copyright information

© The representatives of the estate of the late M. Cary and H. H. Scullard 1975

Authors and Affiliations

  • M. Cary
    • 1
  • H. H. Scullard
    • 1
  1. 1.University of LondonUK

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