The ‘Five Good Emperors’. External Affairs

  • M. Cary
  • H. H. Scullard


The last notable extension of the Roman boundaries beyond the limits fixed by Augustus took place in the reign of the warrior-prince Trajan. Under his successors the frontiers underwent rectifications here and there, but the further additions to Roman territory were insignificant. The area of the Roman Empire in the middle of the second century may be estimated at about 1,700,000 square miles. Before looking in more detail at the various changes that were made we may consider broader outlines of policy.


Eastern Province External Affair Iron Gate Roman Emperor Roman Empire 
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Notes and References

  1. 6.
    On the Arabian frontier see G. Macdonald, Antiquity 1934, 373 ff.Google Scholar
  2. 14.
    On the problems, including chronological, of these wars see A. Birley, Marcus Aurelius (1966), esp. 323 ff.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 16.
    On the German frontier-defences see B. W. Henderson, Five Roman Emperors (1927), 117 ff.Google Scholar
  4. For a possible earlier date for the arrival of the Brittones see H. Schonberger, JRS 1969, 167, and, for recent archaeological evidence for the limes at this period, op. cit. 164 ff.Google Scholar
  5. 19.
    On the Antonine Wall see Sir George Macdonald, The Roman Wall in Scotland2 (1934);Google Scholar
  6. A. S. Robertson, The Antonine Wall (1960); Frere, op. cit., ch. 8. Ordnance Survey map (1969).Google Scholar
  7. On the civilian population of the area of the two Walls see P. Salway, The Frontier People of Roman Britain (1965).Google Scholar
  8. On the fluctuations of Roman control of Scotland in the Antonine and Severan periods see B. R. Hartley, Britannia 1972, 1 ff.Google Scholar
  9. 21.
    See J. W. Eadie, JRS 1967, 161 ff.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© The representatives of the estate of the late M. Cary and H. H. Scullard 1975

Authors and Affiliations

  • M. Cary
    • 1
  • H. H. Scullard
    • 1
  1. 1.University of LondonUK

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