The Flavian Emperors

  • M. Cary
  • H. H. Scullard


The founder of the ‘Flavian dynasty’, T. Flavius Vespasianus (71–79), was a fair representative of the new governing class which the early emperors had recruited among the bourgeoisie of Italy. Sprung from the Sabine hill-town of Reate of an equestrian family he turned to a senatorial career; he was suffect consul in 51, and served with distinction in Britain (43–44) and Africa (proconsul c. 63). Although he had incurred Nero’s displeasure by falling asleep during one of the emperor’s singing recitals, in a.d. 67 at the age of fifty-eight he was appointed to crush the Jewish revolt. His subsequent accession to imperial power was regarded almost as a portent, and his prospects of success in the work of reconstruction, which had proved too much for Galba, must at first have seemed highly problematical.


Imperial Power Roman Emperor Roman World Roman Empire Roman Province 
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Notes and References

  1. Modern works include B. W. Henderson, Five Roman Emperors (1927), chs i-vii;Google Scholar
  2. L. Homo, Vespasien (1949);Google Scholar
  3. S. Gsell, Essai sur le règne de l’empereur Domitien (1894);Google Scholar
  4. an essay on Domitian’s character by K. H. Waters, Phoenix 1964, 49 ff.;Google Scholar
  5. A. Garzetti, From Tiberius to the Antonines (1974) 227 ff., with bibliographical discussions 636 ff.;Google Scholar
  6. R. Syme, Tacitus (1958), passim.Google Scholar
  7. 9.
    See K. Scott, The Imperial Cult under the Flavians (1936).Google Scholar
  8. 10.
    On the extent of the ‘second persecution of Christians see B. W. Henderson, Five RomanEmperors (1927), 42 ff.Google Scholar
  9. 14.
    On Domitian’s finances see R. Syme, JRS 1930, 55ff.Google Scholar
  10. 17.
    For a detailed account of the revolt of Civilis see B. W. Henderson, Civil War and Rebellion in the Roman Empire (1908), ch. iii.Google Scholar
  11. 21.
    On Wales see V. E. Nash-Williams, The Roman Frontier in Wales (1954).Google Scholar
  12. 23.
    On the German and Raetian limes see B. W. Henderson, Five Roman Emperors (1927), ch. vi;Google Scholar
  13. O. Brogan, Archaeological Journal 1935, 1 ff.;Google Scholar
  14. W. Schleimache, Der römische Limes in Deutschland (1961).Google Scholar
  15. For archaeological detail regarding the Flavian period see H. Schönberger, JRS 1969, 154 ff.Google Scholar
  16. On the Dobrudja see H. Gajeweska, Topographie des fortifications romains en Dobrudja (Warsaw, 1974).Google Scholar
  17. 23.
    For Syria under Vespasian see G. W. Bowersock, JRS 1973, 133 ff.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© The representatives of the estate of the late M. Cary and H. H. Scullard 1975

Authors and Affiliations

  • M. Cary
    • 1
  • H. H. Scullard
    • 1
  1. 1.University of LondonUK

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