Roman Society under the Early Roman Emperors

  • M. Cary
  • H. H. Scullard


The age of Augustus and of the early Caesars constituted an epoch in the economic no less than in the political history of the Mediterranean lands. But in agriculture the transformations of this period were less far-reaching than in trade and industry. In Italy the wholesale confiscations and reallotments under the Second Triumvirate had brought about an extensive change in the ownership of land. The general effect of this redistribution was to break up the larger domains into holdings of moderate size, and the tendency for these to be reabsorbed into latifundia was to some extent checked by Augustus’s policy of giving free loans to rural proprietors. The imperial domains and the estates of the wealthiest Romans were to be found in the provinces rather than in Italy. The typical Italian estate of the first century a.d. was a holding of medium size, in which the bourgeoisie of the period invested the profits realised in commerce or manufactures.


Western Province Roman Emperor Roman World Roman Empire Roman Society 
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Notes and References

  1. 18.
    On the discovery of the open-sea routes to India see W. H. Schoff, The Periplus of the Erythraean Sea (1912);Google Scholar
  2. M. P. Charlesworth in Studies in Roman Econ. and Soc. Hist. in Honor of A. C. Johnson (1951), 131 ff.;Google Scholar
  3. M. Cary and E. H. Warmington, The Ancient Explorers (1929), 73 ff.; R. E. M. Wheeler, op. cit. chs ix-xii.Google Scholar
  4. 34.
    On literature see H. J. Rose, A Handbook of Latin Literature3 (1966);Google Scholar
  5. J. Wight Duff, A Literary History of Rome… to the Close of the Golden Age3 (1953)Google Scholar
  6. Lit. Hist. Rome in the Silver Age, from Tiberius to Hadrian (1930);Google Scholar
  7. H. E. Butler, Post-Augustan Poetry from Seneca toJuvenal (1909).Google Scholar
  8. 35.
    On Horace see L. P. Wilkinson, Horace and his Lyric Poetry (1951);Google Scholar
  9. E. Fraenkel, Horace (1957);Google Scholar
  10. Horace ed. C. D. N. Costa (1974).Google Scholar
  11. 37.
    On Virgil see W. Y. Sellar, VergiP (1897);Google Scholar
  12. Brooks Otis, Vngil(1963).Google Scholar
  13. 38.
    See S. F. Bonner, Roman Declamation in the Late Republic and Early Empire (1949), which draws attention to the acquaintance of many declaimers with Roman law.Google Scholar
  14. 41.
    See J. P. Sullivan, The Satyricon of Petronius (1968).Google Scholar
  15. On the literary atmosphere of the Neronian period in general see A. Garzetti, From Tiberius to the Antonines (1974), 60 ff.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© The representatives of the estate of the late M. Cary and H. H. Scullard 1975

Authors and Affiliations

  • M. Cary
    • 1
  • H. H. Scullard
    • 1
  1. 1.University of LondonUK

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