The Julio-Claudian Emperors. Internal Affairs

  • M. Cary
  • H. H. Scullard


The first fifty years after the death of Augustus was a period of transition, during which his system of government gradually became hard-set. The four emperors whose reigns fill this half-century formed a dynasty (the so-called ‘JulioClaudian’ dynasty), for all of them were related by blood to Augustus or to his third wife Livia (see pedigree, p. 574). This hereditary transmission of power was due to the unique personal ascendancy of the first emperor, and to the strong bond of allegiance by which the Roman army was attached to his family. After the extinction of his line the elective character of the Roman monarchy reasserted itself, and no later dynasty of emperors lasted for more than two generations.


Internal Affair Financial Policy False Confession Imperial Finance Roman Empire 
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Notes and References

  1. 2.
    Modern works include F. B. Marsh, The Reign of Tiberius (1931);Google Scholar
  2. R. S. Rogers, Criminal Trials under Tiberius (1935);Google Scholar
  3. R. Syme, Tacitus (1958), esp. 420 ff.;Google Scholar
  4. R. Seager, Tiberius (1972). Also B. Levick, Tiberius (forthcoming).Google Scholar
  5. For the whole period to the Antonines see A. Garzetti, From Tiberius to the Antonines (1974), which contains a valuable assessment of the sources and discussion of relevant modern literature.Google Scholar
  6. 4.
    On conspiracies see R. S. Rogers, Criminal Trials under Tiberius (1935).Google Scholar
  7. On Libo Drusus see D. C. A. Shotter, Historia 1972, 88 ff.Google Scholar
  8. Three modern biographies are by B. W. Henderson, Life and Principate of… Nero (1903);Google Scholar
  9. B. H. Warmington, Nero: Reality and Legend (1969);Google Scholar
  10. And M. Grant, Nero (1970).Google Scholar
  11. Cf. also M. P. Charlesworth, JRS 1950, 69 ff.Google Scholar
  12. 27.
    There is no evidence for persecution outside Rome. The victims, who were thrown to the beasts in the amphitheatre or used as living torches to light the Games in the imperial gardens and the Vatican circus, may have included St Peter and Paul, as tradition asserted. Excavations under St Peter’s Basilica in the Vatican City, though not revealing clear trace of Peter’s burial there, have shown that a martyr-shrine to him stood there as early as c. A.D. 160; they thus go some way to confirming the tradition that Peter was buried under this church beside the site of Nero’s circus. See J. Toynbee and J. Ward-Perkins, The Shrine of St Peter (1956);Google Scholar
  13. E. Kirschbaum, The Tombs of St Peter and St Paul (1959);Google Scholar
  14. D. W. O’Connor, Peter in Rome (1969).Google Scholar
  15. 29.
    For a recent discussion of the implications of the phrase quinquennium Neronis see M. K. Thornton, Historia 1973, 570 ff.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© The representatives of the estate of the late M. Cary and H. H. Scullard 1975

Authors and Affiliations

  • M. Cary
    • 1
  • H. H. Scullard
    • 1
  1. 1.University of LondonUK

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