The Roman Empire under Augustus

  • M. Cary
  • H. H. Scullard


After the civil wars Augustus had a free hand to reshape the foreign policy of Rome as thoroughly as he had reconstructed its internal administration. With all the armed forces of the Empire at his permanent disposal, he had ample means to resume and to extend Caesar’s schemes of conquest. Public opinion at Rome, which had but recently hailed him as the bringer of internal peace, presently urged him to fresh wars against foreign enemies, including Britain and Parthia. The emperor perceived that by advancing the Roman frontiers he might strengthen the defences of empire at some points and open new avenues of trade at others. He realised the need of finding employment for the troops, so as to turn their thoughts from fresh civil wars, and he was not loth to provide opportunities of military distinction for the younger members of his family On the other hand Augustus could not be blind to what the Senate of the later Republic had clearly seen, that foreign expeditions were a seed-bed of military usurpations.


Eastern Province Internal Peace Roman History Roman Empire Roman Province 
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Notes and References

  1. 3.
    For Petronius’s expedition see S. Jameson, YRS 1968, 71 ff., who believes that Augustus’s real intention was conquest.Google Scholar
  2. On Ethiopia see P. L. Shinnie, Meroë (1967).Google Scholar
  3. On the destruction of Aden see M. P. Charles-Worth, Cl. Rev. 1928, 99.Google Scholar
  4. On the Indian embassies (Res Gestae 31.1), see E. H. Warmington, The Commerce between the Roman Empire and India (1928), 35 ff., who shows that more than one mission reached Rome.Google Scholar
  5. 8.
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  10. 9.
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  15. 10.
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  16. 18.
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  29. See also L. R. Taylor, The Divinity of the Roman Emperor (1931).Google Scholar
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  31. 31.
    On the provincial concilia see E. G. Hardy, Studies in Roman History (1906), ch. 13;Google Scholar
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Copyright information

© The representatives of the estate of the late M. Cary and H. H. Scullard 1975

Authors and Affiliations

  • M. Cary
    • 1
  • H. H. Scullard
    • 1
  1. 1.University of LondonUK

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