The Settlement of Augustus. Rome and Italy

  • M. Cary
  • H. H. Scullard


On his return to Italy in the summer of 29 Octavian enjoyed a personal ascendancy such as neither Sulla nor Caesar had ever possessed. He had the entire military strength of the Empire at his disposal; he came back with the prestige of a victor in a foreign war, with the odium that inevitably attaches to success in civil strife largely forgotten, and he brought with him the treasure of the Ptolemies, which not only enabled him to pay off the troops without recourse to further confiscations, but left him with a surplus for distribution to the people of the capital. In the reshaping of the constitution, which was his next task, he had a freer hand than either of his predecessors, and the republican susceptibilities of the Romans, which Sulla had humoured, and Caesar had defied to his cost, weighed far less heavily upon him. It was now full thirty years since the republican government had been in anything like normal working order; the memory of the days of liberty (as then understood) was becoming faint, and the nobles who had been the most active guardians of the republican tradition had been severely reduced in numbers and corporate strength by the civil wars and proscriptions.2


Civil Strife State Religion Roman Empire Italian Stock Republican Tradition 
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Notes and References

  1. 27.
    On the Roman fire-brigade see P. K. Baillie-Reynolds, The Vigiles of Imperial Rome (1926).Google Scholar
  2. 32.
    On the new men see T. P. Wiseman, New Men in the Roman Senate, 139 B.C.—A.D. 14 (1971).Google Scholar
  3. 35.
    For details of Augustus’s social legislation see H. Last, CAH x. 441 ff. Cf. G. Williams, JRS 1962, 28 ff.; Brunt, Manpower, 558ff.;Google Scholar
  4. A. N. Sherwin-White, The Roman Citizenship (1973), 327 ff.Google Scholar
  5. 36.
    On the Severi Augustales see A. M. Duff, Freedmen in the Early Roman Empire (1928), 133 ff.;Google Scholar
  6. L. R. Taylor, IRS 1924, 158 ff.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© The representatives of the estate of the late M. Cary and H. H. Scullard 1975

Authors and Affiliations

  • M. Cary
    • 1
  • H. H. Scullard
    • 1
  1. 1.University of LondonUK

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