Roman Society in the First Century

  • M. Cary
  • H. H. Scullard


From the political standpoint the century following the tribunate of Tiberius Gracchus was the most revolutionary in Roman history. From the economic point of view it was a period of gradual development rather than of abrupt transitions.1


Large Estate Roman History Roman Society Epic Poetry Latin Literature 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Notes and References

  1. 10.
    On social intercourse in general see Warde Fowler, Social Life in Rome in the Days of Cicero; W. Kroll, Die Kultur der ciceronischen Zeit; J. P. V. D. Balsdon, Life and Leisure in Ancient Rome (1969).Google Scholar
  2. 14.
    On the luxurious villas of the aristocracy and their social and cultural background see J. H. D’Arms, Romans on the Bay of Naples (1970);Google Scholar
  3. J. P. V. D. Balsdon, Life and Leisure in Ancient Rome (1969), 193 ff.;Google Scholar
  4. A. G. McKay, Houses, Villas and Palaces in the Roman World (1975).Google Scholar
  5. 15.
    See J. P. V. D. Balsdon, Roman Women (1962).Google Scholar
  6. On changing attitudes to life in Rome see E. S. Ramage, Urbanisas: ancient sophistication and refinement (1973).Google Scholar
  7. 16.
    For wild-beast fighting (venationes) see G. Jennison, Animals for Show and Pleasure in Ancient Rome (1937).Google Scholar
  8. See also M. Grant, Gladiators (1967)Google Scholar
  9. and in general Balsdon, Life and Leisure in Ancient Rome (1969), 288 ff.Google Scholar
  10. On the circus races see H. A. Harris, Sport in Greece and Rome (1972).Google Scholar
  11. 17.
    On Sulla’s reconstruction of the Forum see E. van Deman, IRS 1922, 1 ff.Google Scholar
  12. On the buildings of Rome see Platner and Ashby, A Topographical Dictionary of Ancient Rome (1929);Google Scholar
  13. E. Nash, A Pictorial Dictionary of Ancient Rome 2 vols (1961–2), illustrating the buildings described in Platner-Ashby;Google Scholar
  14. D. R. Dudley, Urbs Roma (1967);Google Scholar
  15. M. Grant, The Roman Forum (1970); and, for Italy as well as Rome, Boëthius and Ward-Perkins, Etruscan and Roman Architecture (1970), ch. 6.Google Scholar
  16. 19.
    On Roman art see E. Strong, Art in Ancient Rome (1929), and CAH ix. 825 ff.;Google Scholar
  17. G. M. A. Richter, Ancient Italy (1955);Google Scholar
  18. J. M. C. Toynbee, The Art of the Romans (1965);Google Scholar
  19. R. B. Bandinelli, Rome, the Centre of Power: Roman Art to A.D. 200 (1970), a sumptuous volume.Google Scholar
  20. 20.
    On Roman schools see A. Gwynn, Roman Education (1926);Google Scholar
  21. H. I. Marrou, A History of Education in Antiquity (1956);Google Scholar
  22. M. L. Clarke, Higher Education in the Ancient World (1971).Google Scholar
  23. 21.
    See L. R. Palmer, The Latin Language (1954).Google Scholar
  24. 25.
    The fragments of Sallust’s Historiae are edited by B. Maurenbrecher, 2 vols (1891–3). See A. D. Leeman, A Systematic Bibliography of Sallust, 1879–1964 (1965);Google Scholar
  25. M. L. W. Laistner, The Greater Roman Historians (1947), ch. iii;Google Scholar
  26. D. C. Earl, The Political Thought of Sallust (1961);Google Scholar
  27. R. Syme, Sallust (1964); 6.Google Scholar
  28. M. Paul in Latin Historians (ed. T. A. Dorey, 1966), ch. iv.Google Scholar
  29. 29.
    The surviving fragments of the Roman Orators are edited by E. Malcovati, Oratorum Romanorum Fragmental (1955).Google Scholar
  30. See M. L. Clarke, Rhetoric at Rome (1953); S. F. Bonner in Fifty Years of Classical Scholarship (ed. M. Platnauer), 335 ff.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    See W. Kunkel, Herkunst and soziale Stellung der römischen Juristen (1952).Google Scholar
  32. On Roman law in general see H. F. Jolowicz, Historical Introduction to the Study of Roman Law3 (1972);Google Scholar
  33. B. Nicholas, An Introduction to Roman Law (1962); and especially, for law in its social setting in everyday lifeGoogle Scholar
  34. J. Crook, Law and Life of Rome (1967).Google Scholar
  35. For the development of private law and its sources in the last two centuries of the Republic see A. Watson, Law Making in the Later Roman Republic (1974).Google Scholar
  36. 32.
    See M. L. Clarke, The Roman Mind (1956);Google Scholar
  37. E. V. Arnold, Roman Stoicism (1911);Google Scholar
  38. A. J. Festugière, Epicurus and his Gods (1955);Google Scholar
  39. B. Farrington, The Faith of Epicurus (1967);Google Scholar
  40. F. H. Sandbach, The Stoics (1975).Google Scholar
  41. 33.
    On Cicero’s thought see H. A. K. Hunt, The Humanism of Cicero (1934);Google Scholar
  42. as historian and antiquarian see E. Rawson, JRS 1972, 33 ff.Google Scholar
  43. 34.
    For books on Roman religion see above Chap. 5, n. 10. On many aspects of religion in Caesar’s day see S. Weinstock, Divus Julius (1971).Google Scholar
  44. 33.
    See F. H. Cramer, Astrology in Roman Law and Politics (1954), ch. ii.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© The representatives of the estate of the late M. Cary and H. H. Scullard 1975

Authors and Affiliations

  • M. Cary
    • 1
  • H. H. Scullard
    • 1
  1. 1.University of LondonUK

Personalised recommendations