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Roman Society in the Second Century

  • M. Cary
  • H. H. Scullard

Abstract

The conquests of the Romans in the third and second centuries left as profound a mark on their private life as on their political institutions.

Keywords

Large Estate Greek Culture Roman Civilisation Roman Society Roman State 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

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Notes and References

  1. On agriculture see K. D. White, Roman Farming (1970), and, for technical aspects, Agricultural Implements of the Roman World (1967); Farm Equipment of the Roman World (1975).Google Scholar
  2. On the meaning of latifundia see K. D. White, Bulletin of the Institute of Classical Studies, London 1967, 62 ff., where the ancient evidence is set out, and Roman Farming, 384 ff.Google Scholar
  3. Both in southern Etruria (around Veii, Sutrium and Capena) and in Apulia (around Luceria) archaeological investigation has shown the survival of small farms during the second century. In southern Etruria, where the work has been done by members of the British School at Rome (see Papers of BSR 1958, 1961, 1963, 1968), small farms formed the majority of the sites investigated. Around Luceria air-photography has revealed the remains of olive-trees and trenches for vines on small individual farms, each of some 10 iugera, which appear to date to c. 120 or a little earlier. Thus they may be connected with the Gracchan settlement which started in 133 B.C. For Luceria see A. J. Toynbee, Hannibal’s Legacy (1965), ii. 563. For a general survey of the archaeological evidence for agrarian problems of the Gracchan period see M. W. Frederiksen, Dialoghi di Archeologia, iv—v (1970–1), 330 ff.Google Scholar
  4. See K. D. White, Roman Farming (1970), 350 ff., and ch. xi, for personnel and personnel-management in general.Google Scholar
  5. Recent air-photography and excavation have dramatically revealed farming conditions in Apulia. They show a settlement of land laid out on a grid-system (centuriatio) and divided into small units for intensive mixed farming. They can be dated to the Gracchan period (c. 120 B.c.) and show that when men were settled at this time there was no question of reverting to the older type of cereal subsistence farming, but the settlers received a cash-crop plantation, each of which was, on a smaller scale, a plantation of the type described by Cato. The pattern of pits dug for olives and vines is clearly revealed and traces of farm-buildings survive. See A. J. Toynbee, Hannibal’s Legacy, ii. 563 ff., for a summary of G. D. B. Jones’s work which will be published later. For photographs see A. H. McDonald, Republican Rome (1966), pls 70–3.Google Scholar
  6. See Cato, de Agr. 22, Varro, 2.8.5. On harness see Lynn White, Mediaeval Technology (1962), 57 ff. A. Burford, Econ. Hist. Rev. 1960, 1 ff. On the position of craftsmen in general see A. Burford, Craftsmen in Greek and Roman Society (1972). Cf. P. A. Brunt, Social Conflicts in the Roman Republic (1971), 20 ff., on the economy. The petty scale of Roman industry in the second century is illustrated by the fact that the construction of the Aqua Marcia in 144 had to be parcelled out among 3000 contractors.Google Scholar
  7. On the organisation of the tax-farming companies see P—W, Supplementband xi, 1203 ff., and 19 On the Equites see H. Hill, The Roman Middle Class (1952); a lengthy work by C. Nicolet, L’Ordre équestre à l’époque républicaine, ii, 1966–75; a valuable paper by P. A. Brunt in The Crisis of the Roman Republic (ed. R. Seager, 1969), 83 ff.; and E. Badian, Publicans and Sinners (1972) and (briefly) OCD 2, s.v. Equites.Google Scholar
  8. On slavery in general see W. L. Westermann, The Slave Systems of Greek and Roman Antiquity (1955), and cf. P. A. Brunt,JRS, 1958 164 ff.; Slavery in Classical Antiquity (ed. M. I. Finley, 1960, with bibliography); and on domestic slavery at Rome (later) R. H. Barrow, Slavery in the Roman Empire (1928), ch. ii.Google Scholar
  9. On slavery in general see W. L. Westermann, The Slave Systems of Greek and Roman Antiquity (1955), and cf. P. A. Brunt,JRS, 1958 164 ff.; Slavery in Classical Antiquity (ed. M. I. Finley, 1960, with bibliography); and on domestic slavery at Rome (later) R. H. Barrow, Slavery in the Roman Empire (1928), ch. ii.Google Scholar
  10. On early Roman literature see especially J. W. Duff, A Literary History of Rome from the Origins to the Close of the Golden Age 3 (1950). For texts and translation of the early poets see E. H. Warmington, Remains of Old Latin, i—iii (1935–8). On Ennius see Ennius, Entretiens Hardt, xvii (1971), especially ch. iv by E. Badian, who discusses the traditions about the poet’s friends in Rome. On Lucilius see J. Christes and W. A. Krenkel, Aufstieg NRW, I. ii. 1182 ff. and 1240 ff.Google Scholar
  11. On early Roman literature see especially J. W. Duff, A Literary History of Rome from the Origins to the Close of the Golden Age 3 (1950). For texts and translation of the early poets see E. H. Warmington, Remains of Old Latin, i—iii (1935–8). On Ennius see Ennius, Entretiens Hardt, xvii (1971), especially ch. iv by E. Badian, who discusses the traditions about the poet’s friends in Rome. On Lucilius see J. Christes and W. A. Krenkel, Aufstieg NRW, I. ii. 1182 ff. and 1240 ff.Google Scholar
  12. On the influence of the Stoic creed upon the Romans see E. V. Arnold, Roman Stoicism (1900). Cf. F. H. Sandbach, The Stoics (1975).Google Scholar

Copyright information

© The representatives of the estate of the late M. Cary and H. H. Scullard 1975

Authors and Affiliations

  • M. Cary
    • 1
  • H. H. Scullard
    • 1
  1. 1.University of LondonUK

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