By the middle of the second century B.C. every state in the Mediterranean, except Mauretania and a few Balkan principalities, was held to Rome by some kind of political tie. Of this ring of dominions and dependencies it might be asserted, as it has been said of the British Empire, that it was acquired ‘in a fit of absentmindedness’. As a result of the unpremeditated character of most of their conquests the Romans had no ready-made plan for their control, but gradually evolved their rules of administration by trial and error; and they never reduced their empiric practices to a cut-and-dried system. Nevertheless the main lines of their methods of government had been laid down before the end of the second century.
KeywordsFormal Treaty Roman People Roman Province Roman State Military Security
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Notes and References
- On alliance, amicitia and clientela see L. Mathaei, Cl. Qu. 1908, 182 ff.;Google Scholar
- A. Heuss, Die volkerrechtlichen Grundlagen der römischen Aussenpolitik (1933);Google Scholar
- and especially E. Badian, Foreign Clientelae, 264–70 B.C. (1958)Google Scholar
- to chs. ii and iii of which the above text owes much. On client-kings see P. C. Sands, The Client Princes of the Roman Empire (1908).Google Scholar
- On provincial administration see G. H. Stevenson, Roman Provincial Administration (1939);Google Scholar
- E. Badian, Publicans and Sinners (1972). This aspect of Roman statecraft is also discussed by T. Frank, Roman Imperialism; Lord Cromer, Ancient and Modern Imperialism; Lord Bryce, The Ancient Roman Empire and the British Empire in India.Google Scholar
- On private, as opposed to State-organised, settlement abroad, see A. J. N. Wilson, Emigration from Italy in the Republican Age of Rome (1966).Google Scholar
- On the incidents leading up to the constitution of the jury-court for extortion see W. S. Ferguson, IRS 1921, 86 ff.;Google Scholar