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The First Punic War and the Conquest of North Italy

  • M. Cary
  • H. H. Scullard

Abstract

The year 264, which marks the beginning of Rome’s overseas conquests, may also be taken as the point at which Roman history emerges from shadow-land into daylight. By this time documentary materials for the writing of history had begun to accumulate (pp. 57ff.), and the earliest Roman annalists, writing at the end of the third century, could obtain information about the First Punic War from actual eye-witnesses.

Keywords

Aegates Island Peace Negotiation Fair Dealing Roman History Italian Coast 
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Notes and References

  1. For the history of the Punic Wars G. De Sanctis, Storia, vols iii and iv, pt 3, are of fundamental importance. A general account is given by T. A. Dorey and D. R. Dudley, Rome Against Carthage (1971). For a general account of Rome’s expansion and policy during these years see R. M. Errington, The Dawn of Empire: Rome’s Rise to World Power (1972).Google Scholar
  2. On Livy see p. 396. Also P. G. Walsh, Livy: His Historical Aims and Methods (1961), and Ogilvie, Livy, with Introduction. Bks 16–20, which treated the First Punic War, are lost. For the Second Punic War Livy’s account (bks 21–30) is based partly upon Polybius, partly upon less trustworthy annalists. One of the better of the latter was a Coelius Antipater who wrote a monograph on the war which was also based partly on Polybius. For the lists of magistrates and legions which he gives Livy drew on official records. His historical value at any point thus largely depends upon what source he was using then.Google Scholar
  3. For Carthage in general see S. Gsell, Histoire ancienne de l’Afrique du Nord, 8 vols (1914–28), especially vols ii and iv, and B. H. Warmington, Carthage’ (1969). Cf. also G. and C. Picard, Daily Life in Carthage (1961), and The Life and Death of Carthage (1968). in the country: as in England in the sixteenth century and later, merchants bought landed estates but continued in business. Cf. Warmington, Carthage,’ 137 f. For the tax, Polybius, i. 72.Google Scholar
  4. For Carthage in general see S. Gsell, Histoire ancienne de l’Afrique du Nord, 8 vols (1914–28), especially vols ii and iv, and B. H. Warmington, Carthage’ (1969). Cf. also G. and C. Picard, Daily Life in Carthage (1961), and The Life and Death of Carthage (1968). in the country: as in England in the sixteenth century and later, merchants bought landed estates but continued in business. Cf. Warmington, Carthage,’ 137 f. For the tax, Polybius, i. 72.Google Scholar
  5. For Carthage in general see S. Gsell, Histoire ancienne de l’Afrique du Nord, 8 vols (1914–28), especially vols ii and iv, and B. H. Warmington, Carthage (1969). Cf. also G. and C. Picard, Daily Life in Carthage (1961), and The Life and Death of Carthage (1968). in the country: as in England in the sixteenth century and later, merchants bought landed estates but continued in business. Cf. Warmington, Carthage,’ 137 f. For the tax, Polybius, i. 72.Google Scholar
  6. On Carthaginian exploration in the Atlantic see M. Cary and E. H. Warmington, The Ancient On the quinquereme see W. W. Tarn, Hellenistic Military and Naval Developments (1930), 129 ff.Google Scholar
  7. On the naval war see J. H. Thiel, History of Roman Sea Power before the Second Punic War (1954).Google Scholar
  8. On the size of the fleets, see W. W. Tarn, _WS 1907, 48 ff. A Punic warship has Rome’s relations with the Gauls are discussed by Polybius, ii. 14–35; chs 21–35 deal with 237–221 B.C. Some of the Celts, the Gaesatae, went into battle naked.Google Scholar
  9. A bronze figurine of this period depicts one: see T. G. E. Powell, The Celts (1958), plate 1. Polybius says that their swords could be used only for cutting, lacking a point for thrusting; however, archaeology shows that by this date Celtic swords had becomeGoogle Scholar
  10. On Flaminius’s outstanding career see K. Jacobs, Gaius Flaminius (1938, written in Dutch), and Z. Yavetz, ‘The Policy of Flaminius’, Athenaeum 1962, 325 ff.Google Scholar
  11. The chief source for the Illyrian Wars is Polybius, ii. 2–12, iii. 16, 18–19 (on which see Walbank, Polybius, i). On Roman policy see M. Holleaux, Rome, la Grèce et les monarchies hellénistiques au Mime siècle ay. J. C. (1921); E. Badian, PBSR 1952, 72 ff. (= Studies in Greek and Roman History (1964), 1 ff.); N. G. L. Hammond, IRS 1968, 1 ff.; K. E. Petzold, Historia 1971, 199 ff.Google Scholar
  12. On Illyrian piracy see H. J. Dell, Historia 1967, 344 ff.Google Scholar
  13. On the territorial extent of the protectorate see N. G. L. Hammond,QRS 1968, 7 ff., with map on p. 3.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© The representatives of the estate of the late M. Cary and H. H. Scullard 1975

Authors and Affiliations

  • M. Cary
    • 1
  • H. H. Scullard
    • 1
  1. 1.University of LondonUK

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