Cunard and North Atlantic Conferences 1860–1914

  • Francis E. Hyde

Abstract

The nature of the trans-Atlantic passenger trade was such that it became extremely difficult to regulate unrestricted competition. This was because conditions affecting the levels of traffic were subject to rapid and unexpected fluctuations, so that when agreement between competing lines had been negotiated, the regulation imposed quickly became out of date. The result was that Conferences proved to be fragile instruments and were generally unsuitable except for short periods when it was absolutely necessary to mitigate the effects of intense rate wars.

Keywords

Sugar Depression Europe Steam Shipping 

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Notes

  1. 1.
    J. Maginnis, The Atlantic Ferry (1900), pp. 54–9Google Scholar
  2. B. Forwood, Reminiscences of a Liverpool Shipowner, (1920), pp. 38–9; CP, H. Eaves, op. cit., under 1860; see also Liverpool Record Office, documents relating to the Inman LineGoogle Scholar
  3. C. Bowen, A Century of Atlantic Travel (1932), p. 105; Liverpool Journal of Commerce, 8 January 1875.Google Scholar
  4. 2.
    Kennedy, A History of Steam Navigation (1903), p. 107.Google Scholar
  5. 3.
    J. Oldham, The Ismay Line (1961).Google Scholar
  6. 4.
    Bastin, ‘Cunard and the Liverpool Emigrant Traffic 1860 to 1900’, M. A. Thesis, University of Liverpool, 1971.Google Scholar
  7. 5.
    Ibid., p. 74.Google Scholar
  8. 6.
    E. Hyde, Blue Funnel (1957)Google Scholar
  9. E. Hyde, Shipping Enterprise and Management: Harrisons of Liverpool (1966)Google Scholar
  10. E. Hyde, The Senior: John Samuel Swire 1825–98 (1967)Google Scholar
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  13. 7.
    W. J. Oldham, op. cit., p. 29.Google Scholar
  14. 8.
  15. 9.
    Ibid., p. 36.Google Scholar
  16. 12.
    Ibid., Q.221.Google Scholar
  17. 13.
    Ibid., Q.1457.Google Scholar
  18. 14.
    There were Conference agreements in operation in the Brazilian trades in 1871 (F. E. Hyde, Liverpool and the Mersey (1971), pp. 109–10), and in the China river trades in 1872Google Scholar
  19. E. Hyde, The Senior op. cit., pp. 61 et seq.). Google Scholar
  20. 17.
  21. 18.
    PP, Passenger Conveyance to America, 1870 LX (288).Google Scholar
  22. 19.
  23. 20.
    See F. E. Hyde, Liverpool and the Mersey (1971) for evidence of declining trends in the port of Liverpool.Google Scholar
  24. 21.
    R. Bastin, op. cit., p. 80.Google Scholar
  25. 29.
    MIP, Charles MacIver correspondence, September 1874.Google Scholar
  26. 30.
    R. Bastin, op. cit., p. 82.Google Scholar
  27. 31.
  28. 33.
  29. 34.
    MIP, Charles MacIver correspondence, 1–10 June 1875.Google Scholar
  30. 35.
  31. 36.
  32. 37.
    Ibid., 31 December 1875.Google Scholar
  33. 41.
    PP, Report on Accommodation and Treatment of Emigrants on Atlantic Steamships, 1881, LXXXII (C.2995), p. 123.Google Scholar
  34. 42.
  35. 43.
    E. Hyde, Liverpool and the Mersey (1971), pp. 56–7.Google Scholar
  36. 44.
    D. H. Aldcroft, The Development of British Industry and Foreign Competition 1875–1914 (1968) under the chapter ‘Mercantile Marine’, p. 357.Google Scholar
  37. 45.
    D. H. Aldcroft, op. cit., p. 361.Google Scholar
  38. 46.
    Bastin, op. cit., p. 88; CP, Report OGM for 1886.Google Scholar
  39. 47.
    Quoted from D. H. Aldcroft, op. cit., p. 357.Google Scholar
  40. 48.
    D. H. Aldcroft, op. cit., loc. cit.Google Scholar
  41. 50.
    W. Tute, Atlantic Conquest (1962), p.Google Scholar
  42. 51.
    Ibid., see also CP, File relating to the Anchor Line dated 1913.Google Scholar
  43. 52.
    A. J. Maginnis, op. cit., p. 68.Google Scholar
  44. 53.
    W. Tute, op. cit., p. 96Google Scholar
  45. Bastin, op. cit., p. 89.Google Scholar
  46. 59.
    Ibid., 14.Google Scholar
  47. 61.
  48. 65.
  49. 66.
    J. Oldham, op. cit., p. 89, quoting letter from T. H. Ismay to J. Burns, 3 February 1885.Google Scholar
  50. 69.
    Jardine, 23 February 1888.Google Scholar
  51. 70.
    D. H. Aldcroft, op. cit., provides material from German archives in support of this statement.Google Scholar
  52. 73.
    D. H. Aldcroft, op. cit., loc. cit.Google Scholar
  53. 74.
    D. H. Aldcroft, op. cit., pp. 361–2.Google Scholar
  54. 75.
  55. 82.
    D. H. Aldcroft, op. cit., p. 349.Google Scholar
  56. 83.
  57. 84.
    1, D. Jardine to Vernon Brown, 25 July 1894.Google Scholar
  58. 85.
    1, D. Jardine to E. Taylor, 1895.Google Scholar
  59. 86.
    BM, 27 October 1896; Shipping World, 16 December 1896, 719; the minimum rates for the Winter season were fixed for twin-screw or fast steamers at £15 with a differential of £3 for Germanic, Britannic, Aurania, Servia and the Boston steamers of the Cunard Co.; for the Summer season the minimum rates were £20 with a differential of £5. The agreement was to operate from 1 December 1896 provided that British lines with slower ships could be brought in on satisfactory terms.Google Scholar
  60. 88.
    Bastin, op. cit., pp. 101–2.Google Scholar
  61. 93.
    R. Bastin, op. cit., p. 102.Google Scholar
  62. 97.
    E. Hyde, Liverpool and the Mersey, op. cit., pp. 115 et seq.; also CP, SLB, John Burns to M.D.H.B., 23 November 1893; 13 December 1893; 8 February 1894.Google Scholar
  63. 105.
  64. 106.
  65. 107.
  66. 108.
  67. 109.
  68. 110.
  69. 113.
    BM, 16 March 1905.Google Scholar
  70. 114.
    BM, 13 April 1905.Google Scholar
  71. 115.
    Ibid.; Chairman’s report OGM 13 April 1905.Google Scholar
  72. 116.
    BM, 7 December 1905; 20 December 1906; 17 January 1907; 21 February 1907; CP, H. Eaves, op. cit., under 1905.Google Scholar
  73. 118.
  74. 119.
    Ibid.; ‘they [the Continental lines] under their agreement called upon the I.M.M. Co., or the Combine, to attack us also’.Google Scholar
  75. 120.
  76. 121.
  77. 129.
  78. 131.
  79. 134.
    Ibid., evidence on the working of Agreement AA.Google Scholar
  80. 135.
  81. 136.
    Ibid., submission by The Cunard S.S. Co. Ltd.Google Scholar
  82. 137.

Copyright information

© Francis E. Hyde 1975

Authors and Affiliations

  • Francis E. Hyde
    • 1
  1. 1.University of LiverpoolUK

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