In every sense the great cities are the growing points in the economies of the less developed countries. On the physical plane their populations are increasing much faster than those of the country as a whole. This is true everywhere — in Latin America, Africa and Asia. A common rate of population growth in the less developed countries is 2—3 per cent per annum. For the cities it is likely to be about 5—6 per cent or even more. Moreover the large cities (which I shall refer to as Metros) are growing points in the dynamic impulse which they impart to the economies. They tend to acquire a higher level of civilisation and incomes than the rest of the country, where real incomes may be stationary or declining. This is especially marked in the developing countries. For instance per capita Bombay income level in relation to the national level is 3 per cent above, in Rio 5·2 per cent, Caracas 2·0 per cent. In Tokyo it is no more than 1·5 per cent and in New York 1·4 per cent.1 This phenomenon when it emerges in the developing countries is sometimes referred to as the ‘dual economy’, with the implication that all urban incomes tend to be higher than rural incomes.
KeywordsLarge City Traffic Flow Ring Road Circulation Policy Traffic Police
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