Advertisement

Employment in Bangladesh: Problems and Prospects

  • Iftikhar Ahmed
Part of the International Economic Association Series book series (IEA)

Abstract

The purpose of this paper is to review briefly the nature and magnitude of unemployment and underemployment as they exist in Bangladesh today. An attempt is made to investigate some of the major causes of the high unemployment rate. Finally this paper focuses on identifying and recommending policy measures which would help create job opportunities.

Keywords

Labour Force Family Planning Programme Labour Requirement Jute Textile Total Labour Force 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. [1]
    Iftikhar Ahmed, ‘Unemployment and Underemployment in Pakistan’ (and Bangladesh), unpublished Ph.D. Dissertation, Iowa State University, 1972.Google Scholar
  2. [1a]
    Lee L. Bean, Pakistan’s Population in the 1970s: certainties and uncertainties (New York, N.Y., The Population Council, 1971).Google Scholar
  3. [2]
    Lee L. Bean, Masihur Rahman Khan and A. Razzaque Rukanuddin, Population Projections for Pakistan: 1960–2000 (Karachi, Pakistan Institute of Development Economics, 1968).Google Scholar
  4. [3]
    Gerard K. Boon, ‘Factor Intensities in Mexico with special reference to manufacturing’, in H. C. Bos (ed.), Towards Balanced International Growth, pp. 201–18 (Amsterdam, Holland, North-Holland publishing Co. 1969).Google Scholar
  5. [4]
    Swadesh R. Bose, ‘Trend of real income of the rural poor in East Pakistan’, 1949–66, Pakistan Development Review, 8: pp. 452–84 (Autumn 1968).Google Scholar
  6. [5]
    John C. H. Fei and Gustav Ranis, Development of the Labour Surplus Economy: theory and policy (Homewood, Illinois, R. B. Irwin, 1964).Google Scholar
  7. [6]
    Government of Pakistan: Population Census of Pakistan, 1961: economic characteristics (Karachi, Office of the Census Commissioner, Census, Bulletin No. 5, 1963).Google Scholar
  8. [7]
    Government of Pakistan:, Population Census of Pakistan, 1961: Sexes, urban and rural (Census Bulletin No. 2, 1962).Google Scholar
  9. [8]
    Government of Pakistan:, Report of the Advisory Panel for the Fourth Five Year Plan, 1970–75, vol. 1 (Karachi, Pakistan Planning Commission, July 1970).Google Scholar
  10. [9]
    Government of Pakistan:, Summary Findings of the Census of Establishments in Selected Cities, 1962–66. (Karachi, Central Statistical Office, Dec. 24, 1968).Google Scholar
  11. [10]
    Government of Pakistan:, Summary Report, Population and Labour Force, 1967–68 (Karachi, Central Statistical Office, 1969).Google Scholar
  12. [11]
    Government of the People’s Republic of Bangladesh, The Annual Plan 1972–73 (Planning Commission, Dacca, 1972).Google Scholar
  13. [12]
    M. T. Habibullah, The Pattern of Agricultural Unemployment (Dacca, Paramount Press, 1962).Google Scholar
  14. [13]
    Mahbubul Haq, ‘Rationale of Government Controls and Policies in Pakistan’, Pakistan Economic Journal, 9 (Mar 1963).Google Scholar
  15. [14]
    Anwarul Haque, Cost and Return: a Study of Irrigated Winter Crops (Comilla, Pakistan Academy for Rural Development, 1969).Google Scholar
  16. [14a]
    A. I. Aminul Islam, ‘An Estimation of the Extent of Overvaluation of the domestic currency in Pakistan at the official rate of exchange’, 1948/49–1964/65, Pakistan Development Review 10, pp. 50–9, (Spring 1970).Google Scholar
  17. [15]
    Nurul Islam, ‘Concepts and Measurement of Unemployment and Underemployment in Developing Countries,’ International Labour Review, 89: pp. 244–55 (Mar 1964).Google Scholar
  18. [16]
    F. R. Kahnert, H. Stier Carmignani, and P. Thomopoulos, Agriculture and Related Industries in Pakistan (Paris, France, Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development, Development Center, 1970).Google Scholar
  19. [17]
    A. R. Khan, ‘Capital Intensity and the Efficiency of Factor Use: a comparative study of the observed capital labour ratios of Pakistani industries’, Pakistan Development Review, 10: pp. 232–63 (Summer 1970).Google Scholar
  20. [18]
    John W. Mellor and M. Raquibuzzaman, Generating Employment in Bangladesh: Some Special Problems and their Possible Solutions (Department of Agricultural Economics, Cornell University, Mar 1972).Google Scholar
  21. [19]
    Mian M. Nazeer, ‘Urban Growth in Pakistan’, Asian Survey 6: pp. 310–18 June 1966).Google Scholar
  22. [20]
    A. Rab, ‘Income Taxation in Pakistan’, unpublished Ph.D. thesis. Cambridge, Mass., Library, Harvard University, 1968.Google Scholar
  23. [21]
    Joseph J. Stern, Employment by Regions and Sectors: 1960–1975. (Cambridge Mass., Harvard University, Dec 8, 1969).Google Scholar
  24. [22]
    John W. Thomas, ‘Agricultural Production, Equity and Rural Organization in East Pakistan’, Mimeographed paper presented at the Pakistan Rural Development Workshop, East Lansing, Michigan, June 21, July 28, 1971. Asian Studies Center, Michigan State University, 1971.Google Scholar
  25. [23]
    John W. Thomas, ‘Rural Public Works and East Pakistan’s Development’, mimeographed paper presented at the Development Advisory Service Conference held at Sorrento, Italy, September 5–18, 1968. Harvard University Center for International Affairs, Economic Development Report No. 112, 1968.Google Scholar
  26. [24]
    Erik Thorbecke and Ardy Stoutjesdijk, A Methodology to Estimate the Relationship between Present and Future Output and Employment, applied to Peru and Guatemala. (Paris, France, Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development, Development Center, Oct 1970).Google Scholar
  27. [25]
    Wouter Tims, ‘Employment by Regions and Sectors: 1950–1985’, memorandum to perspective planning section of the Planning Commission, Government of Pakistan, June 11, 1965.Google Scholar
  28. [26]
    Wouter Tims, ‘Memorandum to Dr. Mahbub ul Haq’, Cambridge, Mass., Harvard University, June 11, 1965.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© International Economic Association 1974

Authors and Affiliations

  • Iftikhar Ahmed
    • 1
  1. 1.University of DaccaBangladesh

Personalised recommendations