Modern developing countries are faced by an enormous challenge of rapid economic development and vast societal transformation. The developmental framework has to take into cognisance a complex and tense background of:
  1. (a)

    the emergence of new social philosophies and dynamics of varied economic forces involving national and international politics of development;

  2. (b)

    inhibited development under colonialism and imperialism, side-by-side with new socio-economic and political alternatives envisaged;

  3. (c)

    conspicuous differences in life conditions among various strata of the same society and between what have been called the rich nations and the poor nations;

  4. (d)

    incredible achievements in modern communications, helping instant diffusion of cultural traits, organisations, new ideologies, and technological innovations in a quickly shrinking world;

  5. (e)

    partly as a corollary, a nearly endemic feature of intra- as well as international demonstration effects leading to rising expectations and rising frustrations, a strikingly new awareness of wants and poverty, and a desparate feeling of relative deprivations around the world.1



Family Planning Capita Income National Income Family Planning Programme Rapid Population Growth 
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  1. 1_It is neither possible nor appropriate to list here the vast area of research and publications in the field. Among a host of others, some relatively important ones are: B. F. Hoselitez, Sociological Aspects of Economic Growth (Glencoe, Ill.: Free Press, 1960)Google Scholar
  2. R. Braibanti and J. J. Spengler (ed.), Tradition, Values, and Socio-economic Development (Durham, N.C.: Duke University Press, 1961)Google Scholar
  3. Karl Marx, A Contribution to the Critique of Political Economy (New York: International Library, 1904)Google Scholar
  4. Richard T. Gill, Economic Development: Past and Present (Englewood Cliffs, N.J.: Prentice-Hall, Inc., 1963)Google Scholar
  5. David E. Apter, The Politics of Modernization (Chicago: The University of Chicago Press, 1965)Google Scholar
  6. Barbara Ward, The Rich Nations and the Poor Nations (New York: W. W. Norton & Co., Inc., 1962)Google Scholar
  7. Gunar Myrdal, Asian Drama: An Inquiry into the Poverty of Nations, 3 vols (New York: Pantheon, 1968).Google Scholar
  8. 2_M. R. Khan estimates a population size of 73–9 million as of Jan 1, 1973, assuming a net emigration of one million during the past decade. See Masihur Rahman Khan, Bangladesh Population during the First Five Year Plan Period, 1972–77 (Dacca: Bangladesh Institute of Development Economics, Oct 1972).Google Scholar
  9. 1_Warren C. Robinson, ‘Recent Mortality Trends in Pakistan’, in Robinson (ed.), Studies in the Demography of Pakistan (Karachi: Pakistan Institute of Development Economics, 1967), p. 38.Google Scholar
  10. 2_Government of Pakistan: Planning Commission, The Second Five Year Plan (1960–65), (Karachi: Government of Pakistan Press, June 1960), p. 3.Google Scholar
  11. 4_Findings of the Phelps-Stokes Intercollegiate Assembly, A Report on the Population Dilemma (New York: The Phelps-Stokes Fund, 1965), p. 9.Google Scholar
  12. 1_Frank W. Notestein, ‘Some Economic Aspects of Population Change in the Developing Countries’, in J. Mayone Stycos and Jorge Aries, Population Dilemma in Latin America (Washington, D.C.: Potomac Books, 1966), pp. 93–94.Google Scholar
  13. 2_Gunar Myrdal, The Challenge of World Poverty (Middlesex, England and Victoria, Australia: Penguin Books, 1970), p. 153.Google Scholar
  14. 1_Said Hasan, ‘Address at the Conference on the World Population Crisis’, New York, May 11, 1961, in Stuart Mudd (ed.), The Population Crisis and the Use of World Resources (The Hague: W. Junk, 1964), p. 165.Google Scholar
  15. 3_See: Myron Weiner, ‘Political Demography: An Inquiry into the Political Consequences of Population Change’, in National Academy of Sciences, Rapid Population Growth: Consequences and Policy Implications (Baltimore & London: The Johns Hopkins Press, 1971), pp. 567–617.Google Scholar
  16. 1_Alfred Sauvy, Fertility and Survival: Population Problems from Malthus to Mao Tse-Tung (New York: Criterion Books, 1961), p. 86.Google Scholar
  17. 3_Ansley J. Coale and Edgar M. Hoover, Population Growth and Economic Development in Low-Income Countries (Princeton, N.J.: Princeton University Press, 1958), pp. 334–335.Google Scholar
  18. 2_M. Badrud Duza, ‘Attitudes of Pakistani Élites toward Population Problems and Population Policy: A Study of Professors, Lawyers, Doctors and Government Officers’, unpublished Ph.D. dissertation in Sociology (Ithaca, N.Y.: Cornell University, 1967).Google Scholar
  19. 2_Frank W. Notestein, ‘Problems of Policy in Relation to Areas of Heavy Population Pressure’, in Joseph J. Spengler and Otis Dudley Duncan (eds.), Population Theory and Policy (Glencoe: The Free Press, 1963), p. 478.Google Scholar
  20. 1_J. Mayone Stycos, ‘Population and Family Planning Programs in Newly Developing Countries’, in Ronald Freedman (ed.), Population: The Vital Revolution (Garden City, N.Y.: Doubleday, 1964), p. 168.Google Scholar
  21. 2_Bernard Berelson, ‘Population Policy: Personal Notes’, Population Studies, 25(2) (July 1971), pp. 173–82.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 4_Kingsley Davis, ‘Population Policy: Will Current Programs Succeed?’ Science, 158 (November, 1967), p. 734.Google Scholar
  23. 1_Kingsley Davis, The Population of India and Pakistan (Princeton, N.J.: Princeton University Press, 1951), p. 226.Google Scholar
  24. 1_For an adequate elaboration of this theme, see: Bernard Berelson, ‘Beyond Family Planning’, in Nafis Sadik, et al. (eds.), Population Control: Implications, Trends and Prospects (Islamabad: Pakistan Family Planning Council, 1969), pp. 67–97.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© International Economic Association 1974

Authors and Affiliations

  • Badrud Duza
    • 1
  1. 1.University of ChittagongBangladesh

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