Manganese is the third most abundant transition metal, being widely distributed in the earth’s crust. It heads group VIIa of the periodic table, lying above technetium and rhenium. The maximum oxidation state +7 is shown in the permanganates, and all oxidation states from +7 to −3 are known; this is the widest range shown by a first-row transition element. Pure manganese is largely produced by electrolysis from aqueous solutions containing manganese(ii) sulphate.
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