Titanium is the most naturally abundant transition metal after iron, and is widely distributed throughout the earth’s surface. Despite this fact, the metal has been of commercial importance only during the last two or three decades. Although it has some very desirable physical properties as an engineering metal, the high cost of production of the pure metal (Kroll process, chapter 10) still hinders its utilisation. It is used in supersonic aircraft, in which its high strength-to-weight ratio is important, and in the construction of chemical plant where its corrosion resistance (particularly to moist chlorine) is its important feature.
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