The pattern of industrialisation in Russia, 1700–1914

  • Olga Crisp
Part of the Studies in Russian and East European History book series (SREEHS)


By the commonly accepted criteria of industrialisation Russia in 1914 was not yet an industrialised country. Agriculture was still the most important sector, accounting in 1913 for nearly two-thirds of the population and for at least 45 per cent of the national income. Over the whole period since 1860 agricultural production grew by about 2 per cent annually (of which half only on account of higher yields), which, given a population growth rate of about 1 • 5 per cent, was not more than 1/2 per cent per head. Manufacturing and mining accounted for not more than one-fifth of the national income and employed not much over 5 per cent of the entire labour force. This sector grew at an approximate rate of 5 per cent per annum, if both factory and handicraft industry are included, which gave a comparatively high rate of per capita increase of 3 1/2 per cent. For the economy at large, including transport, trade and services as well as industry and agriculture, the total volume of output grew at 2 1/2 per cent per annum or only about 1 per cent per head. Real income per head in 1913 was only half that of Germany, one-third that of the USA and Britain, and approximately equal to that of Italy.1 Not more than about 18 per cent of the population of some 170 million lived in urban centres in 1916.


Labour Force Eighteenth Century Rural Location Indirect Taxation Factory Industry 
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Copyright information

© Olga Crisp 1976

Authors and Affiliations

  • Olga Crisp
    • 1
  1. 1.University of LondonUK

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