In 1809 the Grand Duchy of Finland ended a connection of over six hundred years when it passed from the kingdom of Sweden to the Russian Empire. In uniting Finland to the Empire, Alexander I, anxious to secure a strategically vulnerable frontier area, chose to adopt a policy of consultation and conciliation. Whilst the war against Sweden still continued, representatives of the four Finnish Estates were summoned to a Diet in the small town of Porvoo. Here the Emperor promised to maintain and uphold the rights and privileges of each Estate in accordance with the ‘constitutions’ of the land. In return he expressed the hope that his new subjects, elevated to the rank of nationhood, would respond in a loyal and obedient manner to their new sovereign ruler.
KeywordsNational Identity Soviet Government Social Democratic Party Grand Duchy Finnish Speaker
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