• D. G. Kirby
Part of the Studies in Russian and East European History book series (SREEHS)


In 1809 the Grand Duchy of Finland ended a connection of over six hundred years when it passed from the kingdom of Sweden to the Russian Empire. In uniting Finland to the Empire, Alexander I, anxious to secure a strategically vulnerable frontier area, chose to adopt a policy of consultation and conciliation. Whilst the war against Sweden still continued, representatives of the four Finnish Estates were summoned to a Diet in the small town of Porvoo. Here the Emperor promised to maintain and uphold the rights and privileges of each Estate in accordance with the ‘constitutions’ of the land. In return he expressed the hope that his new subjects, elevated to the rank of nationhood, would respond in a loyal and obedient manner to their new sovereign ruler.


National Identity Soviet Government Social Democratic Party Grand Duchy Finnish Speaker 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Copyright information

© D. G. Kirby 1975

Authors and Affiliations

  • D. G. Kirby

There are no affiliations available

Personalised recommendations