‘Downward Causation’ in Hierarchically Organised Biological Systems

  • Donald T. Campbell


It is convenient to append as a comment on Beckner’s stimulating paper some remarks made in part in reaction to other presentations, including those of Medawar, Edelman, and Monod, and in a final section to the presentations of Dobzhansky, Thorpe, Eccles, Birch, Rensch and Skolimowski. Beckner, Medawar, Edelman and Monod are among my fellow ‘reductionists’, in so far as there are any ‘reductionists’ present at this conference.


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© Macmillan Publishers Limited 1974

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  • Donald T. Campbell

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