Characteristics of Forging Presses: Determination and Comparison
This study discusses the important characteristics of forging presses and describes methods for determining them. A 700 ton hydraulic press, a newly installed 500 ton mechanical press of scotch yoke design, and a 400 ton screw press were used in the study. In all threepresseshigh-temperature ring-compression tests were used to determine the practical effect of press speed on die chilling, metalflow and load requirements. In the mechanical press, room temperature copper upset tests were employed to determine the dynamic press stiffness, the offcentre loading ability, the flatness of ram and bolster surfaces under load and the available energy capacity at various production rates.
The methods used in the present study can be applied for the evaluation, comparison and standardisation of forging presses under practical production conditions.
Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.
- 1.T. Altan and A. M. Sabroff. Comparison of mechanical presses and screw presses for closed-die forging. SME Technical Paper MF70–125.Google Scholar
- 2.J. Stoter. Investigation of the forging process in hammer and press, particularly as related to die fill (in German). Doctoral Dissertation, Technical University, Hanover, 1959.Google Scholar
- 3.Kienzle. Characteristics of data in machine tools for closed-die forging (in German). Werkstattstechnik, 55, 1965, p. 509.Google Scholar
- 4.T. Altan and A. M. Sabroff. Important factors in the selection and use of equipment for forging. Precision Metal, 28, Part I, 1I, III, and IV, June, p. 54, July, August, and September, 1970.Google Scholar
- 5.U. Klafs. On the determination of temperature distribution in dies and workpiece during warmforming (in German). Doctoral Dissertation, Technical University, Hanover, 1969.Google Scholar
- 6.O. Kienzle. Development trends in forming equipment (in German). Werkstattstechnik, 49, 1959, p. 479.Google Scholar
- 7.P. Knauss. The design and application of the modern percussion press. Sheet Metal Industries, February, 1970, p. 137.Google Scholar
- 8.D. Watermann. Determination of available energy in hammers and presses with copper cylinders (in German). Werkstattstechnik, 52, 1962, p. 95.Google Scholar
- 9.T. Altan and D. E. Nichols. Use of standardised copper cylinders for determining load and energy in forging equipment. ASME Paper 71-WA /Prod-3.Google Scholar
- 10.H. Bohringer and K. H. Kilp. The significant characteristics of percussion presses and their measurement. Sheet Metal Industries, May, 1968, p. 335.Google Scholar
- 12.Th. Klaprodt. Comparison of characteristics of screw and crank presses for die forging (in German). Industrie-Anzeiger, 90, 1968, p. 1423.Google Scholar
- 13.H. D. Watermann. The work accuracy of hammers and screw presses in offcentre loading (in German). Werkstattstechnik, 53, 1963, No. 8, p. 413.Google Scholar
- 14.H. Makelt. The Mechanical Presses (in German). Carl Hanser Verlag, Munich, 1961.Google Scholar
- 15.A. T. Male and V. DE Pierre. The validity of mathematical solutions for determining friction from the ring compression test. ASME Paper No. 69-WA/ Lub-8.Google Scholar
- 16.C. H. Lee and T. Altan. Influence of flowstress and friction upon metal flow in upset forging of rings and cylinders. ASME Paper 71-WA/Prod-9.Google Scholar
- 18.G. Saul, A. T. Male and V. DE Pierre. A new method for the determination of material flowstress values under metalworking conditions. Technical Report AFML-TR-70-19, January, 1970.Google Scholar