New Directions for Agricultural Policy in the Industrial Countries
The domestic farm policies of the industrial countries impose enormous costs upon consumers and taxpayers and such costs, if present policies are continued, will show an increasing rather than a decreasing trend. The trade restrictions deemed essential for these policies are an important source of tension among trading nations. It has been learned that high farm prices alone are not enough to provide politically acceptable incomes to farm families. So long as the major reliance is placed upon protection and high prices, the pressure is for still more protection and still higher prices. This pressure is one which governments can accede to only for relatively short periods of time.
KeywordsAgricultural Policy Farm Family Annual Earning Farm Population Income Differential
Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.
Notes and References
- 9.Dimitri B. Shimkin, ‘Current Characteristics and Problems of the Soviet Rural Population’, in Roy D. Laird (ed.), Soviet Agricultural and Peasant Affairs (Lawrence, 1963), p. 110. Shimkin adds: ‘Soviet rural-urban educational differences are striking. Two-thirds of the rural persons over fifteen, including 79 per cent of the rank-and-file collective farmers have completed less than seven years of school and may be considered functional illiterates. Forty per cent of the urban people were in this class. Eight-tenths of 1 per cent of the adult country-dwellers were graduates of higher educational institutions, compared with five times that proportion in the urban world. Low education and linguistic blocks are major barriers to socio-economic change in the Soviet village.’ (Ibid., p. 84.)Google Scholar
- 12.D. G. Johnson, ‘Policies to Improve the Labor Transfer Process’, American Economic Review, May 1960, p. 403.Google Scholar
- 17.Takeo Misawa, ‘Characteristic Features of Part-time Farming in Japan’, International Journal of Agrarian Affairs, Institute of Agrarian Affairs, University of Oxford, July 1968, p. 318.Google Scholar
- 30.Richard F. Wertheimer II, The Monetary Rewards of Migration within the United States, (Washington: Urban Institute, 1970).Google Scholar