British Outdoor Recreation Policies and Experience in the Twentieth Century

  • Ivor H. Seeley


THIS CHAPTER SEEKS to portray the main recreational developments that have taken place in Great Britain during the present century and to explore the motivating factors. Events in the latter part of the nineteenth century are examined briefly and some comparisons are made with developments in the United States.


Local Authority National Park Recreational Facility Green Belt Outdoor Recreation 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. 1.
    SMITH, T. S. First Report of the Commissioners for Inquiring into the State of Large Towns and Populous Districts, Vol. 1, (1844)Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    GIBBON, G. and BALL, R. W. A History of the London County Council, London, (1939)Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    DALEY, A. and BENJAMIN, B. London as a case study. Public Health and Urban Growth. Centre for Urban Studies, Report 4, University College, London, (1964)Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    FERGUSON, T. Public health in Britain in the climate of the nineteenth century. Public Health and Urban Growth. Centre for Urban Studies, Report 4, University College, London, (1964)Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    CLARKE, E. R. and CLARKE, W. S. Children’s recreation in the United Kingdom. Statutes and Constitutions. National Playing Fields AssociationGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    SMITH, Sir H. L. (Ed.). New Survey of London Life and Labour, London, (1930)Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    BENJAMIN, B. The urban background to public health changes in England and Wales, 1900–50. Public Health and Urban Growth. Centre for Urban Studies, Report 4, University College, London, (1964)Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    RODDIS, R. J. (1970). The Law of Parks and Recreation Grounds, ShawGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    LAW, S. (1967). Planning for Public Open Space in Greater London. Proceedings of Conference on Planning for Recreation, York Institute of Advanced Architectural StudiesGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    LONDON COUNTY COUNCIL. Parks for Tomorrow, (1964)Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    BUTLER, G. B. (1959). Introduction to Community Recreation, McGraw HillGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    MEYER, H. D. and BRIGHTBILL, C. K. (1964). Community Recreation: A Guide to its Organisation, Prentice-HallGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    CLAWSON, M., HELD, R. B. and STODDARD, C. H. (1962). Land for the Future, John Hopkins Press, BaltimoreGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    NATIONAL PLAYING FIELDS ASSOCIATION. Outdoor Recreation in Great BritainGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    NATIONAL PLAYING FIELDS ASSOCIATION. Grounds for Action: A Description of the Work of the National Playing Fields AssociationGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    NATIONAL PLAYING FIELDS ASSOCIATION. About Our Work, (1969)Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    NATIONAL PLAYING FIELDS ASSOCIATION. Disused Burial Grounds as Playgrounds and Playing Fields, (1965)Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    MOLYNEUX, D. D. Working for recreation. Journal of Royal Town Planning Institute, 54.4, (1968)Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    HANSARD PARLIAMENTARY DEBATES, Official Report. Fifth Series. 1936–37. Vol. 322, cols. 193–284, Vol. 324, cols. 2173–2192Google Scholar
  20. 20.
    CENTRAL COUNCIL OF PHYSICAL RECREATION. Sport and the Community, (1960)Google Scholar
  21. 21.
    DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION AND SCIENCE. Playing Fields and Hard Surface Areas, Building Bulletin 28, H.M.S.O., (1966)Google Scholar
  22. 22.
    DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION AND SCIENCE. Secondary School Design: Physical Education, Building Bulletin 26, H.M.S.O. (1965)Google Scholar
  23. 23.
    SILLITOE, K. K. Planning for Leisure, H.M.S.O., (1969)Google Scholar
  24. 24.
    NICHOLSON, G. Team games in decline amid the quiet revolution. The Guardian, (15 November 1969)Google Scholar
  25. 25.
    NATIONAL PLAYING FIELDS ASSOCIATION. Making the Most of School Playing Fields, (1960)Google Scholar
  26. 26.
    NATIONAL PLAYING FIELDS ASSOCIATION. School Playing Fields—dual use policies in operation, (1964)Google Scholar
  27. 27.
    MINISTRY OF HOUSING AND LOCAL GOVERNMENT (Circular 49/64) and DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION AND SCIENCE, Provision of Facilities for Sport, (1964)Google Scholar
  28. 28.
    CULLEN, P. Whither industrial recreation now? Sport and Recreation, 7.4, (1966), 16–22 and 8.1, (1967), 10–15Google Scholar
  29. 29.
    MINISTRY OF HOUSING AND LOCAL GOVERNMENT. The Green Belts, H.M.S.O., (1962)Google Scholar
  30. 30.
    RICHARDSON, T R. Green belts—past, present and future. Journal of Institution of Municipal Engineers, 86.10, (1959)Google Scholar
  31. 31.
    NOTTINGHAMSHIRE/DERBYSHIRE SUB-REGIONAL PLANNING UNIT. Nottinghamshire and Derbyshire Sub-Regional Study, (1969)Google Scholar
  32. 32.
    WORLD HEALTH ORGANISATION EXPERT COMMITTEE. Technical report 297. Environmental Health Aspects of Metropolitan Planning and Development, World Health Organisation, Geneva, (1965)Google Scholar
  33. 33.
    BARR, J. Planning for the Ruhr. Geographical Magazine, (January 1970), 280–289Google Scholar
  34. 34.
    DAVIDSON, J. M. The Countryside Commission. Proceedings of Conference on Recreation in the Countryside, Loughborough University, (1969)Google Scholar
  35. 35.
    NATIONAL PARKS IN ENGLAND AND WALES. (Dower Report), Cmd. 6628, (1945)Google Scholar
  36. 36.
    REPORT OF THE NATIONAL PARKS COMMITTEE (ENGLAND AND WALES). (Hobhouse Report), Cmd. 7121, (1947)Google Scholar
  37. 37.
    CULLINGWORTH, J. B. Planning for leisure. Urban Studies, 1.1, (1964)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    COUNTRYSIDE COMMISSION. Nineteenth Report of the National Parks Commission and First Report of the Countryside Commission, H.M.S.O., (1968)Google Scholar
  39. 39.
    BURTON, T. L. and WIBBERLEY, G. P. (1965). Outdoor Recreation in the British Countryside, Department of Economics, Wye College, University of LondonGoogle Scholar
  40. 40.
    FULL, H. F. National Park Authorities’ Statistics, 1968–69. County Council’s Gazette, (November 1969), 328–330Google Scholar
  41. 41.
    STANDING COMMITTEE ON NATIONAL PARKS. The future of National Parks and the countryside. Study No. 2Google Scholar
  42. 42.
    FOSTER, J. National Parks and in particular the Peak District National Park. Land and People, British Broadcasting Corporation, (1966)Google Scholar
  43. 43.
    CLOUT, H. Planning National and Regional Parks in France. Town and Country Planning, (December 1969), 560–563Google Scholar
  44. 44.
    COPPOCK, J. T. The recreational use of land and water in rural Britain. Tijdschrift voor Economische en Sociale Geographie, 57.3, (1966)Google Scholar
  45. 45.
    FOSTER, J. Provision for countryside and coast: National Parks. Course on Recreation and Leisure, York Institute of Advanced Architectural Studies, (1967)Google Scholar
  46. 46.
    COUNTRYSIDE COMMISSION. Recreation research in Devon. Recreation News, No. 14, (January 1970), 3Google Scholar
  47. 47.
    RAMBLERS’ ASSOCIATION. Motor Vehicles in National Parks, (1962)Google Scholar
  48. 48.
    TOWN AND COUNTRY PLANNING ASSOCIATION. A policy for countryside recreation in England and Wales. Town and Country Planning, (December 1965), 473–481Google Scholar
  49. 49.
    THE FIELD EDITORIAL. Opening the paths in Snowdonia. The Field, (17 April 1969)Google Scholar
  50. 50.
    COUNTRYSIDE COMMISSION. The National Parks of England and Wales, H.M.S.O.Google Scholar
  51. 51.
    DENMAN, D. R. Public access to private land. Chartered Surveyor, (August 1968), 77–80Google Scholar
  52. 52.
    HAWTHORNE, G. Threat to National Parks grows. The Guardian, (14 November 1969)Google Scholar
  53. 53.
    ARDILL, J. Outcry looms on Park Plan. The Guardian, (19 March 1970)Google Scholar
  54. 54.
    EAST MIDLANDS ECONOMIC PLANNING COUNCIL. The East Midlands Study, H.M.S.O., (1966)Google Scholar
  55. 55.
    EDWARDS, K. C., Peak District-museum of the outdoors Nottingham Evening Post and News, (13 September 1968)Google Scholar
  56. 56.
    JOINT SCHOOLS SURVEY. People at play in Dartmoor National Park. Geographical Magazine, (January 1970), 266–279Google Scholar
  57. 57.
    HOOKWAY, R. J. S. (1968). Planning for Leisure and Recreation, Countryside CommissionGoogle Scholar
  58. 58.
    HOOKWAY, R. J. S. (1968). Investment in Recreation in National Parks, Countryside CommissionGoogle Scholar
  59. 59.
    NATIONAL TRUST. The National Trust: Some Facts and Figures, (1969)Google Scholar
  60. 60.
    LEISURE IN THE COUNTRYSIDE (ENGLAND AND WALES). Cmd. 2928, (1966)Google Scholar
  61. 61.
    HOOKWAY, R. J. S. (1968). Planning of Land Resources: Recreation in the Countryside, Countryside CommissionGoogle Scholar
  62. 62.
    COUNTRYSIDE COMMISSION. Policy on Country Parks and Picnic Sites, (1969)Google Scholar
  63. 63.
    DENMAN, D. R. Five crucial years in the destiny of common land, 1965–1970. The Countryside in 1970, Second Conference, (1965)Google Scholar
  64. 64.
    REPORT OF ROYAL COMMISSION ON COMMON LAND, 1955–58 Cmnd. 462, H.M.S.O.Google Scholar
  65. 65.
    HARDY, D. The Use of Land for Recreation with Special Reference to an Area near Brentwood, Essex. Private communication, Department of Geography, University of Exeter, (1969)Google Scholar
  66. 66.
    WAGER, J. Outdoor recreation on common land. Journal of the Royal Town Planning Institute, (November 1967), 398–403Google Scholar
  67. 67.
    COUNTRYSIDE COMMISSION. (1968). The Coasts of England and Wales: Measurements of Use, Protection and Development, H.M.S.O.Google Scholar
  68. 68.
    TURNBULL, P. Planning for the holidaymaker—the next ten years. Journal of the Royal Town Planning Institute, (July/August 1962)Google Scholar
  69. 69.
    INSTITUTION OF MUNICIPAL ENGINEERS. Preliminary memorandum on coastal preservation and development to National Parks Commission. Journal of Institution of Municipal Engineers, (May 1967)Google Scholar
  70. 70.
    TANNER, M. F. Coastal recreation in England and Wales. Coastal Recreation and Holidays: Special study report Vol. 1, Countryside Commission, H.M.S.O., (1969)Google Scholar
  71. 71.
    EDLIN, H. L. Creating forests. The Guardian, (19 August 1969)Google Scholar
  72. 72.
    GARTHWAITE, P. F. Enjoying the wildlife. The Guardian, (19 August 1969)Google Scholar
  73. 73.
    COUNTRYSIDE COMMISSION. Digest of Countryside Recreation Statistics, (1969)Google Scholar
  74. 74.
    MUTCH, W. E. S. Public Recreation in National Forests: A Factual Survey. Forestry Commission Booklet No. 21, H.M.S.O., (1968)Google Scholar
  75. 75.
    BRANCHER, D. M. Scenery, Roads, Cars and Cost. Proceedings of Third Annual Study Conference, University of Wales, Council for the Protection of Rural Wales, (1969)Google Scholar
  76. 76.
    LORD ROBENS. The Use and Development of the Nation’s Resources. Proceedings of Annual Conference of Royal Institution of Chartered Surveyors, University of Nottingham, (1966)Google Scholar
  77. 77.
    HAWTHORNE, G. Two more long routes ready for walkers. The Guardian, (10 April 1969)Google Scholar
  78. 78.
    MILLAR, T. G. Britain’s long-distance paths. Town and Country Planning, (March 1969), 103–107Google Scholar
  79. 79.
    BARRETT, J. H. Progress on a coastal path. Geographical Magazine, (January 1970), 292–303Google Scholar
  80. 80.
    HALL, C. Up on the Downs. Town and Country Planning, (November 1969), 512–513Google Scholar
  81. 81.
    CYCLISTS’ TOURING CLUB. Disused Railway Lines. Press notice, (October 1969)Google Scholar
  82. 82.
    HILTON, K. H. (Ed.). (1967). The Lower Swansea Valley Project, LongmansGoogle Scholar
  83. 83.
    COUNTRYSIDE COMMISSION. (1970). Nature conservation at the coast, H.M.S.O.Google Scholar
  84. 84.
    HOOKWAY, R. J. S. and DAVIDSON, J. (1970). Leisure: Problems and Prospects for the Environment, Countryside CommissionGoogle Scholar
  85. 85.
    NATURE CONSERVANCY. (1968). The Nature Conservancy Handbook 1968, H.M.S.O.Google Scholar
  86. 86.
    COUNTRYSIDE COMMISSION. The Nature Conservancy. Recreation News No. 10, (1969)Google Scholar
  87. 87.
    COUNTRYSIDE ĆOMMISSION. The Sports Council. Recreation News No. 7, (1969)Google Scholar
  88. 88.
    CENTRAL COUNCIL OF PHYSICAL RECREATION. The Sports Council: A review 1966–69, (1969)Google Scholar
  89. 89.
    MINISTRY OF LAND AND NATURAL RESOURCES/DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION AND SCIENCE. Joint Circular 3/66: 19/66. Reservoirs and Gathering Grounds, (1966)Google Scholar
  90. 90.
    FORESTRY COMMISSION. Forty-ninth Annual Report and Accounts, 1967–69, H.M.S.O., (1970)Google Scholar
  91. 91.
    CHAMBERS, J. D. Modern Nottingham in the making. Nottingham Journal, (1945)Google Scholar
  92. 92.
    MOSLEY, J. G. The Peak District National Park: A Regional Study of an Amenity Area. Private communication, University of Nottingham, Department of Geography, (1955)Google Scholar
  93. 93.
    APPLETON, J. H. (1970). Disused Railways in the Countryside of England and Wales, Countryside Commission, H.M.S.O.Google Scholar
  94. 94.
    FORESTRY COMMISSION. See Your Forests, (1970)Google Scholar
  95. 95.
    FORESTRY COMMISSION. The Forestry Commission and Conservation, (1970)Google Scholar
  96. 96.
    FORESTRY COMMISSION. Forestry Commission Camping and Caravan Sites, (1970)Google Scholar
  97. 97.
    RICHARDSON, S. D. Forestry planners must include recreation. Address to British Association. The Guardian, (9 September 1970)Google Scholar
  98. 98.
    LINDSEY COUNTY COUNCIL. Countryside Recreation: the Ecological Implications, (1970)Google Scholar
  99. 99.
    COPPOCK, J. T. Reconnaisance study of the impact of outdoor recreation on the countryside of Central Scotland. Royal Town Planning Institute Research Conference: Planning for the Changing Countryside. Paper 32, (1967)Google Scholar
  100. 100.
    STODDART, D. R. Our environment. Area 1. Institute of British Geographers, (1970)Google Scholar
  101. 101.
    BRYANT, A. The best use of our land. Chartered Surveyor, 103.3, (1970)Google Scholar
  102. 102.
    BONSEY, C. C. The Rising Tide of Outdoor Recreation. Proceedings of Annual Conference of Royal Institution of Chartered Surveyors, University of Warwick, (1970)Google Scholar
  103. 103.
    WIBBERLEY, G. Rural Conservation. Proceedings of Annual Conference of Royal Institution of Chartered Surveyors, University of Warwick, (1970)Google Scholar
  104. 104.
    COUNTRYSIDE COMMISSION. Elvaston Castle Country Park. Recreation News, Supplement 1, (1970)Google Scholar
  105. 105.
    WHITE, J. The provision of country parks; a critique. Town and Country Planning, 38.6, (1970)Google Scholar
  106. 106.
    SIDAWAY, R. M. Estimation of day use recreation by the Forestry Commission. Recreation News, 20, (1970)Google Scholar
  107. 107.
    LONGLAND, J. Role of the Countryside Commission. Conference of National Park Authorities, Sheffield, (1970)Google Scholar
  108. 108.
    ROBINSON, K. Address to Annual Conference of National Park Authorities, Aviemore, (1969)Google Scholar
  109. 109.
    CROSSLEY, H. Elvaston Castle. County Councils Gazette, 63.6, (1970)Google Scholar
  110. 110.
    GILLESPIE, W. Rural parks. Journal of Institute of Landscape Architects, 90, (1970)Google Scholar
  111. 111.
    COUNTRYSIDE COMMISSION. (1970). The Planning of the Coastline, H.M.S.O.Google Scholar
  112. 112.
    COUNTRYSIDE COMMISSION. (1970). The Coastal Heritage. H.M.S.O.Google Scholar
  113. 113.
    CHRISTIAN, R. New uses for old railways. Country Life, (25 June 1970)Google Scholar
  114. 114.
    HEUS, C. DE. The manufacture of orientation tables for recreation areas. Recreation News Supplement 4. Countryside Commission, (1971)Google Scholar
  115. 115.
    ROYAL INSTITUTION OF CHARTERED SURVEYORS. Memorandum of Evidence to National Parks Policies Committee, (1972)Google Scholar
  116. 116.
    ELVASTON ESTATE JOINT MANAGEMENT COMMITTEE. Elvaston Castle Country Park 1969–71, (1971)Google Scholar
  117. 117.
    SELLORS, M. R. (1972). Disused Railways in Lindsey, Lindsey County CouncilGoogle Scholar
  118. 118.
    COUNTRYSIDE COMMISSION. Schemes for the Recreational Use of Disused Railways, (1970)Google Scholar
  119. 119.
    DEPARTMENT OF THE ENVIRONMENT. Press notice 357, Reorganisation of Sports Council, (1971)Google Scholar
  120. 120.
    DEPARTMENT OF THE ENVIRONMENT. Press notice 375, Major Objectives for New Sports Council, (1971)Google Scholar
  121. 121.
    FORSTER, R. Case Studies in Recreational Traffic Management. Proceedings of Conference on Outdoor Recreation, Department of Surveying, Trent Polytechnic, (1972)Google Scholar
  122. 122.
    WALDEN, R. G. The redevelopment of disused railways in East Anglia. Private Communication. Department of Surveying, Trent Polytechnic, Nottingham, (1973)Google Scholar
  123. 123.
    GARTON, K. The Development of Elvaston Castle Country Park. Proceedings of Conference on Outdoor Recreation, Department of Surveying, Trent Polytechnic, (1972)Google Scholar
  124. 124.
    PHILLIPS, A. A. C. British Outdoor Recreation Policies. Proceedings of Conference on Outdoor Recreation, Department of Surveying, Trent Polytechnic, (1972)Google Scholar

Copyright information

© I. H. Seeley 1973

Authors and Affiliations

  • Ivor H. Seeley
    • 1
  1. 1.Trent PolytechnicNottinghamUK

Personalised recommendations