Research and Development, and Production

  • J. Wilczynski


The Comecon countries take pride in their solid base for carrying on scientific and technical research. According to a Comecon source based on UNESCO data, in 1965 these countries had 6·2m. scientists and engineers — which constituted 44 per cent of the world’s total (whilst Comecon’s share in the world’s population was only 10 per cent). For details, see Table 19, where for comparative purposes figures for Western Europe and the USA are also given. According to a Soviet source, in 1970 the USSR had 2·5m. engineering graduates compared with 0·9m. in the USA, and the number of graduating engineers in the same year was 257,000 in the USSR but only 50,000 in the USA.1


Foreign Trade National Income Industrial Enterprise Capitalist Country Soviet Economist 
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  1. 5.
    Z. Madej, op. cit., p. 135. This estimate differs from that found in P. Sager, The Technological Gap between the Superpowers (Berne, Swiss Eastern Institute, 1972, p. 34), based on an OECD survey, where Soviet R&D expenditure in 1968 is given as $25,800m. (and $25,000m. in the USA). In this writer’s view, either a broader basis of classification of R & D spending was adopted for the USSR than for the USA or an unrealistic exchange rate of the rouble to the dollar was applied. The figure of $25,800m. would represent about 10 per cent of the Soviet national income (compared with 5 per cent in the USA). Cf. also Ch. IIE, p. 338.Google Scholar
  2. 7.
    J. Metera, Współpraca naukowo-techniczna krajów RWPG (Scientific and Technical Co-operation amongst the Comecon Countries), Warsaw, PWE, 1969, pp. 13–14.Google Scholar
  3. 8.
    G. M. Dobrov, Aktuelle Probleme der Wissenschaftswissenschaft (Current Problems of the Science of Knowledge), East Berlin, Dietz, 1970, pp. 8–9.Google Scholar
  4. 17.
    S. M. Yampolskii, F. M. Khilnik and V. A. Lisichkin, Problemy nauchno-tekhnicheskogo prognozirovaniya (Problems of Scientific and Technical Projections), Moscow, Ekonomika, 1969, pp. 120–1.Google Scholar
  5. 29.
    J. Stolarz, Postęp techniczny w przedsiębiorstwie przemyslowym (Technical Progress in the Industrial Enterprise), Warsaw, PAN, 1972, p. 7.Google Scholar
  6. 30.
    The lag in years in the case of some well-known inventions was as follows: photography, 112 (1727–1839); telephone, 56 (1820–76); radio, 35 (1867–1902); TV, 12 (1922–34); atomic bomb, 6 (1939–45); transistors, 5 (1948–53); integrated circuits, 3 (1958–61). Quoted from: Krystyna Cholewicka-Goździk (ed.), Organizacyjne i ekonomiczne aspekty sterowania jakością (Organizational and Economic Aspects of Quality Control), Warsaw, PWE, 1970, p. 50.Google Scholar
  7. 31.
    J. Kleer, Wzrost intensywny w krajach socjalistycznych (Intensive Growth in the Socialist Countries), Warsaw, CBZZ, 1972, p. 36.Google Scholar
  8. 36.
    To quote evidence which apparently produced some impression in Comecon: A. Hollander, The Source of Increased Efficiency, Cambridge, Mass., MIT Press, 1965, esp. pp. 195–6.Google Scholar
  9. 37.
    In A. Plocica (ed.), Strategia intensywnego rozwoju (The Strategy of Intensive Development), Warsaw, PWE, 1970, p. 370.Google Scholar
  10. 40.
    W. Biliński, Slużba organizatorska w jednostkach przemyslowych (Organization Service in Industrial Entities), Warsaw, CIINTE, 1970, p. 9.Google Scholar
  11. 43.
    S. Dulski, Jakość produkcji (The Quality of Production), Warsaw, PWE, 1971, p. 134.Google Scholar
  12. 49.
    P. Bożyk, Korzyści z międzynarodowej specjalizacji (Benefits of International Specialization), Warsaw, PWE, 1972, p. 25.Google Scholar
  13. 85.
    e.g. K. Kraus, (‘Direction Cybernetics’), Życie gospodarcze, 25/7/1971, p. 11 ; J. Wilcsek, ‘Modern Small and Medium-Sized Factories in Hungarian Industry’, Acta oeconomica (Economic Papers), vol. VI, no. 4, 1971, pp. 319–32Google Scholar

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© J. Wilczynski 1974

Authors and Affiliations

  • J. Wilczynski
    • 1
    • 2
  1. 1.Central School of Planning and StatisticsWarsawPoland
  2. 2.R.M.C.University of New South WalesDuntroonAustralia

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