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Technological Progress and Ideology

  • J. Wilczynski

Abstract

The Comecon region has come to occupy an important place in the world scene. It represents 10 per cent of the world’s population, 18 per cent of its area, over 20 per cent of its national income, nearly 33 per cent of its industrial output and it claims some 40 per cent of the world’s engineers and scientists. The region has had a remarkable record of economic achievements. Over the two decades of 1950–70 its average annual rate of growth of national income was 8 per cent (compared with 5 per cent in the European Economic Community and the rest of the world). The rate for industrial output was even more spectacular, viz. 10 per cent (compared with 6 per cent in the EEC and the world as a whole).1

Keywords

Technological Progress National Income Socialist Economy Nuclear Power Station Industrial Output 
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Notes

  1. 8.
    W. Iskra and H. Kisiel, RWPG. Integracja gospodarcza (Economic Integration in Comecon), Warsaw, KiW, 1971, p. 48.Google Scholar
  2. 6.
    S. Dulski, Jakość produkcji (The Quality of Production), Warsaw, PWE, 1971, p. 152.Google Scholar
  3. 10.
    For details, see J. Wilczynski, Profit, Risk and Incentives under Socialist Economic Planning, London, Macmillan, 1973, pp. 130–56.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 18.
    However, the presence of such skilled manpower does not necessarily mean that it is fully utilized. In fact there is evidence indicating that in Comecon such skills are wasted to a considerable extent. A large proportion of university graduates have no chance of using their qualifications at work, and a large proportion of engineers are employed outside the production sphere (see, e.g., A. Bodnar and B. Zahn, Rewolucja naukowo-techniczna a socjalizm (Scientific and Technical Revolution and Socialism), Warsaw, KiW, 1971, p. 146). According to P. Sager (The Technological Gap between the Superpowers, Berne, SEIP, 1972, p. 29), in the USSR in the mid-1960s only 3–8 per cent of graduates with tertiary training were employed in industry, compared with 11–6 per cent in the USA.Google Scholar
  5. 18.
    In Krystyna Cholewicka-Goździk (ed.), Organizacyjne i ekonomiczne aspekty sterozvania jakością (Institutional and Economic Aspects of Quality Control), Warsaw, PWE, 1970, p. 46.Google Scholar
  6. 27.
    One of the declared objectives of Comecon is ‘to assist in the industrialization and the gradual evening-out of the historically created differences in the economic development of the Socialist countries, to aid in constructing the material base so as to enable these countries to enter full communism within one historical period at about the same time’. Anna Roslan (ed.), Rada Wzajemnej Pomocy Gospodarczej: Wybór materiałóvo i dokumentów (Council for Mutual Economic Assistance: A Selection of Reports and Documents), Warsaw, KiW, 1964, p. 159.Google Scholar
  7. 32.
    O. Lange, ‘On the Economic Theory of Socialism’, Review of Economic Studies, vol. IV, no. 1, 1936–7, pp. 33–71, and no. 2, pp. 123–42;Google Scholar
  8. O. Lange and F. M. Taylor, ‘Trial and Error in a Socialist Economy’, in B. E. Lippincott (ed.), On the Economic Theory of Socialism, Minneapolis, U. of Minnesota P., 1938, pp. 72–83; O. Lange, (‘Computer and Market’), Życie gospodarcze, 24/10/1965.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© J. Wilczynski 1974

Authors and Affiliations

  • J. Wilczynski
    • 1
    • 2
  1. 1.Central School of Planning and StatisticsWarsawPoland
  2. 2.R.M.C.University of New South WalesDuntroonAustralia

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