A Study of Success and Failure in Industrial Innovation

  • C. Freeman
Part of the International Economic Association Conference Volumes, Numbers 1–50 book series (IEA)


This paper discusses the main results of a recent project carried out at the Science Policy Research Unit of the University of Sussex.1 The project (SAPPHO) was an attempt to measure a large number of characteristics of successful attempts to innovate and to compare them with corresponding unsuccessful attempts.


Small Firm Chief Executive Successful Attempt Successful Innovation Industrial Innovation 


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  1. 3.
    A. L. Mackay and J. D. Bernai, ‘Towards a science of science’, The Technologist, II, No. 4 (1966), 319–29.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© International Economic Association 1973

Authors and Affiliations

  • C. Freeman
    • 1
  1. 1.University of SussexUK

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